David M. Gardiner

Picture of David M. Gardiner
Professor, Developmental & Cell Biology
School of Biological Sciences
UCI ADVANCE Program Equity Advisor
School of Biological Sciences
Associate Dean for Research
School of Biological Sciences
B.A., Occidental College
PH.D., Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD
Phone: 949-824-2792
Fax: 0
Email: dmgardin@uci.edu
University of California, Irvine
4111 Natural Sciences II
Mail Code: 2305
Irvine, CA 92697
Research Interests
regeneration, development, limbs, stem cells, amphibian, deformed frogs
Academic Distinctions
Fellow American Association for the Advancement of Science
Research Abstract
Salamanders are the only vertebrates that can regenerate lost body parts as adults. The key to this ability is that limb cells are triggered to dedifferentiate and reinitiate growth and pattern formation. Our strategy is to use axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) to discover the signals that trigger the regeneration response, in the belief that these signals have enormous potential and consequences for human health. Our long term goals are to identify the regeneration-enabling signals in limbs, in order to support progress towards the eventual application of these molecules to the improvement of human repair mechanisms. Most recently we have been involved in the development of genomic resources for identifying the key signaling pathways that control limb regeneration. The tools and knowledge are in place to attack complex systems, and understanding regeneration is likely to lead to new approaches and therapies for replacing or repairing lost, damaged or diseased parts of the body.
McCusker, C, Lehrberg, J. and Gardiner, D.M. (2014). Position-specific induction of ectopic limbs in non-regenerating blastemas on Axolotl forelimbs. REGENERATION (in press)
McCusker, C. and Gardiner, D.M. (2013) Positional information is reprogrammed in blastema cells of the regenerating axolotl limb. PLoS One, 2013 Sep 27;8(9):e77064
Gardiner, D.M., Bryant, S.V. and Muneoka, K. (2013). Engineering a regenerated limb. In: Regenerative Engineering (Laurencin, C and Kahn, Y. eds). CRC Press, New York. Pp. 387-404.
Jangwoo Lee, Amy Corcoran, Manjong Han, Gardiner, D.M. and Ken Muneoka (2013). Dlx5 and Msx2 Regulate Mouse Anterior Neural Tube Closure through ephrinA5-EphA7. Dev. Growth Diff. 55:341-349.
Lee, J., Aguilar, C. and Gardiner, D.M. (2013). Gain-of-function assays in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) to identify signaling pathways that induce and regulate limb regeneration. In: Wound Regeneration and Repair, Methods and Protocols (Gourdie, R.G. and Myers, T.A. eds.) Humana Press, New York. Pp. 401-417.
Lee, J. and Gardiner, D.M. (2012). Regeneration of limb joints in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). PLoS One 7:1-9
Zhu, W., Kuo, D., Nathanson, J., Satoh, A., Pao, G.M., Yeo, G.W., Bryant, S.V., Voss, S.R., Gardiner, D.M., and Hunter, T. (2012). Retrotransposon long interspaced nucleotide element-1 is activated during salamander limb regeneration. Dev. Growth Diff. 54:673-685
Zhu, W., Pao, G. M., Satoh, A., Cummings G., Monaghan, J.R., Harkins, T.T., Bryant, S.V., Voss, S.R., Gardiner, D.M., and Hunter, T. (2012). Activation of germline-specific genes is required for limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl. Dev. Biol. 379:423-451
Satoh A., Bryant, S.V. and Gardiner, D.M. (2012). Nerve signaling regulates basal keratinocyte proliferation in the blastema apical epithelial cap in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Dev. Biol. 366: 374-381
Monaghan, J.R., Athippozhy, A., Seifer, A.W., Putta, S., Stromberg, A., Maden, M., Gardiner, D.M. and Voss, S.R. (2012). Gene expression patterns specific to the regenerating limb of the Mexican axolotl. Biology Open 1 :937-948
Gardiner, D.M. and Holmes, L.B. (2012). Hypothesis: Terminal transverse limb defects with “Nubbins” represent a regenerative process during limb development in human fetuses. Birth Defects Research 94:129-133. PMID: 22287196.
McCusker, C. and Gardiner, D.M. (2011). The axolotl model for regeneration and aging research: A Mini-Review. Gerontology. 57:565-571.
Sun, L., Chen, M., Yang, H., Wang, T., Liu, B., Shu, C. and David M. Gardiner, D.M. (2011). 454 sequencing analysis of gene expression profiling during Intestinal and body wall regeneration in the sea cucumber. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part D Genomics Proteomics 6:195-205.
Ferris, D.R., Satoh, A., Mandefro, B., Cummings, G., Gardiner, D.M. and Rugg, E.L. (2010). Ex vivo generation of a functional and regenerative wound epithelium from axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) skin. Dev. Growth Diff. 52:715-724.
Satoh, A., Cummings, G.M.C., Bryant, S.V. and Gardiner, D.M. (2010). Regulation of proximal-distal intercalation during limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Dev. Growth Diff. 52: 785-798.
Hirata, A., Gardiner, D.M., and Satoh, A. (2010). Dermal fibroblasts contribute to multiple tissues in the accessory limb model. Dev. Growth & Diff. 52:343-50.
Satoh, A., Cummings, G.M.C., Bryant, S.V., and Gardiner, D.M. (2010). Neurotrophic regulation of fibroblast dedifferentiation during limb skeletal regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Dev. Biol. 337:444-457.
Tanner, K., Ferris, DR., Lanzano, L., Mandefro, B., Mantulin, WW., Gardiner, DM/. Rugg, EL., and Gratton, E. (2009). Coherent movement of cell layers during wound healing by image correlation spectroscopy. Biophysical J. 97:2098-2106.
Holden, P.K., Li, C., Da Costa, V., Sun, C.H., Bryant, S.V., Gardiner, D.M., and Wong, B.J.F. (2009). The effects of laser irradiation of cartilage on chondrocyte gene expression and the collagen matrix. Lasers in Surgery & Medicine 41:487-491.
Satoh, A., James, M.A. and Gardiner, D.M. (2009). The role of nerve signaling in limb genesis and agenesis during axolotl limb regeneration. J. Bone Joint Surg. (in press).
Monaghan, J.R., Epp, L., Putta, S., Page, R.B., Walker, J.A., Beachy, C.K., Zhu, W., Pao, G.M., Verma, I.M., Hunter, T., Bryant, S.V., Gardiner, D.M., Harkins, T.T., and Voss, S.R. (2009). Microarray and cDNA sequence analysis of transcription during nerve-dependent limb regeneration. BMC Biology 7:1
Smith, J.J., Putta, S., Zhu, W., Pao,. G., Harkins, T., Hunter, T., Verma, I., Bryant, S.V., Gardiner, D.M., and Voss, S.R. (2009). Genic Regions of a Large Salamander Genome Contain Long Introns and Novel Genes. BMC Genomics 10:19.
Ghosh, S., Roy, S., Seguin, C., Bryant, S.V. and Gardiner, D.M. (2008). Expression of Wnt5a and Wnt5b in developing and regenerating axolotl limbs. Dev. Growth & Diff. 50:289-297
Satoh, A., Bryant, S.V. and Gardiner, D.M. (2008). Regulation of dermal fibroblast dedifferentiation and redifferentiation during wound healing and limb regeneration in the Axolotl. Dev. Growth & Diff. 50:743-754.
Satoh, A., Graham, G.M.C., Bryant, S.V. and Gardiner, D.M. (2008). Neurotrophic regulation of epidermal dedifferentiation during wound healing and limb regeneration in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). Dev. Biol. 319:321-325.
Muneoka, K., Han, M., and Gardiner, D. (2008). Human Limb Regeneration: Understanding the Challenge. Scientific American 298:56-63.
Satoh, A., Gardiner, D.M., Bryant, S.V. and Endo, T. (2007). Nerve-induced ectopic limb blastemas in the axolotl are equivalent to amputation-induced blastemas. Dev. Biol. 312:231-244.
Gardiner, D.M. and Bryant, S.V. (2007). Homeobox-containing genes in limb regeneration. in “HOX Gene Expression” (ed. Spyros Papageorgiou). Landes Bioscience, Austin. 9 pp
Grun, F., Watanabe, H., Zamanian, Z., Maeda, L. Arima, K., Chubacha, R., Gardiner, D.M., Kanno, J., Iguchi, T., and Blumberg, B. (2006). Endocrine disrupting organotin compounds are potent inducers of adipogenesis in vertebrates. Mol Endocrinol. 20: 2141-2155.
Gardiner, D.M. and Susan V. Bryant (2006). Limb Regeneration. in “Fins into Limbs”, Brian Hall (ed.). Univ. Chicago Press. Chicago
Wong, B.J.F., Pandhoh, N., Truong, M.T., Diaz, S., Chao, K., Hou, S. and Gardiner, D.M. (2005). Identification of chondrocyte proliferation following laser irradiation, thermal injury, and mechanical trauma. Lasers in Surgery & Medicine. 37:89-96.
Gardiner, D.M. (2005). Ontogenetic decline of regenerative ability and the stimulation of human regeneration. Rejuvenation Res. 8:141-153.
Putta, S., Smith, J.J., Walker, J., Rondet, M., Weisrock, D.W., Monaghan, J., Samuels, A.K., Kump, K., King, D.C., Maness, N.J., Habermann, B., Tanaka, E., Bryant, S.V., Gardiner, D.M., Parichy, D.M. and Voss, S.R. (2004). From Biomedicine to Natural History Research: Expressed Sequence Tag Resources for Ambystomatid Salamanders. BMC Genomics 5:54-70.
Endo, T., Bryant, S.V., and Gardiner, D.M. (2004). A stepwise model system for limb regeneration. (2004). Dev. Biol. 270:135-145.
Bridges, C., Little, E., Gardiner, D., Petty, J., and Huckins, J. (2004). Assessing the toxicity and teratogenicity of pond water in North-Central Minnesota to amphibians. Environ. Sci. Pollution Res. 11:233-239.
Gardiner, D.M., Ndayibagira, A., Grun, F. and Blumberg, B. (2003). Deformed Frogs and Environmental Retinoids. Pure Applied Chem. 75:2263-2274
Bryant, S.V., Endo, T. and Gardiner, D.M. (2002). Vertebrate limb regeneration and the origin of limb stem cells. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 46:887-896
S. Randal Voss, J.J. Smith, D.M. Gardiner, and D.M. Parichyt (2001) Conserved Vertebrate Chromosome Segments in the Large Salamander Genome. Genetics. 158:735-746.
Carlson, M.R.J., Komine, Y., Bryant, S.V., and Gardiner, D.M. (2001). Expression of Hoxb13 and Hoxc10 in developing and regenerating axolotl limbs and tails. Dev. Biol. 229, 396-406.
Roy, S., Gardiner, D.M. and Bryant, S.V. (2000). Vaccinia as a tool for functional analysis in regenerating limbs: ectopic expression of Shh. Dev. Biol. 218, 199-205.
Burkhart, J.G., Ankley, G., Bell, H., Carpenter, H., Fort, D., Gardiner, D., Gardner, H., Hale, R., Helgen, J.C., Jepson, P., Johnson, D., Lannoo, M., Lee, D., Lary, J., Levey, R., Magner, J., Meteyer, C., Shelby, M.D., and Lucier, G. (2000). Strategies for assessing the implications of malformed frogs for environmental health. Envir. Health Perspectives. 108, 83-90.
Gardiner, D.M. and Hoppe, D.M. (1999). Environmentally-induced limb malformations in mink frogs (Rana septentrionalis). J. Exp. Zool. 284, 207-216
DARPA, US Department of Defense, "Digit Regeneration in Mammals"
Army Research Office, MURI, "Systems Biology of Regeneration"
Professional Societies
Society for Developmental Biology
American Society for Cell Biology
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Other Experience
Assistant Dean for Corporate Relations
School of Biological Sciences, UC Irvine 1999—2000
Visiting Assistant Professor of Zoology and Developmental Biology
UC Davis 1980—1982
Visiting Assistant Professor of Biology
Occidental College 1976—1980
Associate Director of Marine Science
Occidental College 1978—1980
Graduate Programs
Developmental Biology and Genetics
Last updated