Vladimir Jivkov Kefalov

picture of Vladimir Jivkov Kefalov

Professor, Ophthalmology
School of Medicine

M.Sc., Sofia University, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1993, Solid State Physics
Ph.D., Boston University, 1999, Cellular Biophysics

Phone: (949)824-0552
Email: vkefalov@uci.edu

University of California, Irvine
2121 Gillespie|837 Health Sciences Road
Irvine, CA 92697
Research Interests
Photoreceptor physiology, Visual cycle and dark adaptation, Photoreceptor degeneration, Gene-independent therapy for retinitis pigmentosa
Postdoctoral Fellow - Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; 1999-2005
Assistant Professor to Professor - Department of Ophthalmology, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO; 2005-2021
Research Abstract
Research in the Kefalov lab is focused on the function of rod and cone photoreceptors. Studies target basic biological questions such as cone and rod phototransduction, calcium and the mechanisms of light adaptation, and the visual cycle and dark adaptation. Additional studies focus on disease-oriented questions such as the mechanisms of retinal degeneration in mouse models of visual disorders, and the development of therapeutic tools for preventing photoreceptor death. Current projects investigate the signaling by chromophore-free opsin, chromophore supply to cones, the etiology of G90D and G90V rhodopsin mutations, and calcium regulation in rod bipolar cells.
Awards and Honors
2019 Bressler Prize in Vision Science, Lighthouse Guild.
2018 Washington University Hope Center for Neurological Disorders Pilot Grant (co-PI).
2013 Alcon Research Institute Young Investigator Grant.
2012 Carl Marshall Reeves & Mildred Almen Foundation Research Grant.
2011 Washington University McDonnell Center for Systems Neuroscience Award (PI).
2007 International Retina Research Foundation Research Grant.
2006 Research to Prevent Blindness Career Development Award.
2005 Karl Kirchgessner Foundation Vision Research Grant (unsolicited).
2005 FASEB Award for talk presentation (Biology and Chemistry of Vision research conference).
2001 Visual Neuroscience Training Grant, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
1999 National Eye Institute Travel Grant (Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology).
1999 Boston University Student Achievement Day - First prize.
1998 Boston University Student Research Fellowship - First prize.
1998 Boston University Student Achievement Day - Second prize.
Short Biography
Vladimir Kefalov started his scientific career in his native Bulgaria, where he obtained a M.Sc. degree in Solid State Physics. In the course of these studies, he became fascinated by biophysics and neuroscience. This led him to earning his PhD in Cellular Biophysics from Boston University School of Medicine, studying photoreceptor physiology under the mentorship of Dr. Carter Cornwall. He completed his postdoctoral fellowship in 2005 at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he studied mammalian photoreceptors with Dr. King-Wai Yau. He started his lab at 2005 in the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences at Washington University in St. Louis, quickly establishing a productive and well-funded research program focused on understanding the mechanisms that control the function and survival of rod and cone photoreceptors. Quickly rising through the academic ranks at Washington University, he obtained tenure in 2010, became a Full Professor in 2015, and most recently served as Vice Chair for Research in the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences. Dr. Kefalov relocated his lab to UC Irvine in June of 2021 as a Professor in Ophthalmology and Physiology & Biophysics, and serves as Vice Chair for Research at the Department of Ophthalmology.
1. Laradji A.M., Kolesnikov A.V., Karakoçak B.B., Kefalov V.J., Ravi N. (2021) Redox-Responsive Hyaluronic Acid-Based Nanogels for the Topical Delivery of the Visual Chromophore to Retinal Photoreceptors. ACS Omega. 6:6172-6184.

3. Kolesnikov A.V., Kiser P.D., Palczewski K., Kefalov V.J. (2021) Function of mammalian M-cones depends on the level of CRALBP in Müller cells. J Gen Physiol. 153:e202012675.

4. Bisbach C.M., Hutto R.A., Poria D., Cleghorn W.M., Abbas F., Vinberg F., Kefalov V.J., Hurley J.B., Brockerhoff S.E. (2020) Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter (MCU) deficiency reveals an alternate path for Ca2+ uptake in photoreceptor mitochondria. Sci Rep. 10:16041. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-72708-x.

5. Volkov L.I., Kim-Han J., Saunders L., Poria D., Hughes A.E.O., Kefalov V.J., Parichy D.M., Corbo J.C. (2020) Thyroid hormone receptors mediate two distinct mechanisms of long-wavelength vision. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 117:15262-15269.

6. Xue Y., Razafsky D., Hodizc D., Kefalov V.J. (2020) Mislocalization of cone nuclei impairs cone function in mice. FASEB J. 34:10242-10249.

7. Thebeau C., Zhang S., Kolesnikov A.V., Kefalov V.J., Semenkovich C.F., Rajagopal R. (2020) Light deprivation reduces the severity of experimental diabetic retinopathy. Neurobiol Dis. 137:104754.

8. Kolesnikov A.V., Chrispell, J.D., Osawa S., Kefalov V.J. #, Weiss E.R. # (2020) Phosphorylation at Serine 21 in G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (GRK1) is required for normal kinetics of dark adaption in rod but not cone photoreceptors. FASEB J. 34:2677-2690

9. Ruminski D., Palczewska G., Nowakowski M., Zielinska A., Kefalov V.J., Komar K., Palczewski K., Wojtkowski M. (2019) Two-photon microperimetry: sensitivity of human photoreceptors to infrared light. Biomed Opt Express. 10:4551-4567.

10. Vinberg F., Palczewska G., Zhang J., Komar K., Wojtkowski M., Kefalov V.J., Palczewski K. (2019) Sensitivity of Mammalian Cone Photoreceptors to Infrared Light. Neuroscience 416:100-108.

11. Gospe S.M., Travis A.M., Kolesnikov A.V., Klingeborn M., Wang L., Kefalov V.J., Arshavsky V.Y. (2019) Photoreceptors in a Mouse Model of Leigh Syndrome are Capable of Normal Light-Evoked Signaling. J Biol Chem 294:12432-12443.

12. Leinonen H., Choi E.H., Gardella A., Kefalov V.J., Palczewski K., (2019) A mixture of FDA-approved monoaminergic drugs protects the retina from light-damage in diverse models of night blindness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 60:1442-1453.

13. Kiser P.D., Kolesnikov A.V., Kiser J.Z., Dong Z., Chaurasia B., Wang L., Summers S.A., Hoang T., Blackshaw S., Peachey N.S., Kefalov V.J., Palczewski K. (2019) Conditional deletion of Des1 in the mouse retina does not impair the visual cycle in cones. FASEB J. 33:5782-5792.

14. Sato S., Jastrzebska B., Engel A., Palczewski K., Kefalov V.J. (2019) Apo-opsin exists in equilibrium between a predominant inactive and a rare highly active state. J Neurosci. 39:212-223.

15. Vinberg F., Kefalov V.J. (2018) Investigating the Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent mechanisms for mammalian cone light adaptation. Sci Rep. 8:15864. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34073-8.

16. Kolesnikov A.V., Tang P.H., Kefalov V.J. (2018) Examining the Role of Cone-expressed RPE65 in Mouse Cone Function. Sci Rep. 8:14201. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-32667-w.

17. Vinberg F., Chen J., Kefalov V.J. (2018) Regulation of calcium homeostasis in the outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors. Prog Retin Eye Res 67:87-101.

18. Vinberg F., Peshenko I.V., Chen J., Dizhoor A.M., Kefalov V.J. (2018) Guanylate cyclase-activating protein 2 contributes to phototransduction and light adaptation in mouse cone photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 293:7457-7465.

19. Sarria I., Cao Y., Wang Y., Ingram, N.T., Orlandi C., Kamasawa N., Kolesnikov A.V., Kefalov, V.J., Sampath, A.P., Martemyanov, K. (2018) LRIT1 modulates adaptive changes in synaptic communication of cone photoreceptors. Cell Reports 22:3562-3573.

20. Sato S., Peshenko I.V., Olshevskaya E.V., Kefalov V.J.#, Dizhoor A.M.# (2018) GUCY2D Cone-Rod Dystrophy-6 is a 'Phototransduction Disease' Triggered by Abnormal Calcium Feedback on Retinal Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase 1. J Neurosci. 38:2990-3000.

21. Kiser P.D., Zhang J., Sharma A., Angueyra J.M., Kolesnikov A.V., Badiee M., Tochtrop G.P., Kinoshita J., Peachey N.S., Li W., Kefalov V.J.#, Palczewski K.# (2018) Retinoid isomerase inhibitors impair but do not block mammalian cone photoreceptor function. J Gen Physiol. 150:571-590.

22. Kolesnikov A.V., Orban T., Jin H., Brooks C., Hofmann L., Dong Z., Sokolov M., Palczewski K.#, Kefalov V.J.# (2017) Dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A regulates visual pigment regeneration and the dark adaptation of mammalian photoreceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114:E9675-E9684.

23. Vinberg F., Wang T., De Maria A., Zhao H., Bassnett S., Chen J.#, Kefalov V.J.# (2017) The Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger NCKX4 is required for efficient cone-mediated vision. Elife 6: doi: 10.7554/eLife.24550.

24. Potter C., Zhu W., Razafsky D., Ruzycki P., Kolesnikov A.V., Doggett T., Kefalov V.J., Betleja E., Mahjoub M.R., Hodzic D. (2017) Multiple Isoforms of Nesprin1 Are Integral Components of Ciliary Rootlets. Curr Biol 27:2014-2022.

25. Xue Y., Sato S., Razafsky D., Sahu B., Shen S.Q., Potter C., Sandell L.L., Corbo J.C., Palczewski K., Maeda A., Hodzic D., Kefalov V.J. (2017) The role of retinol dehydrogenase 10 in the cone visual cycle. Sci Rep 7: doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02549-8.

26. Sato S., Frederiksen R., Cornwall M.C., Kefalov V.J. (2017) The retina visual cycle is driven by cis retinol oxidation in the outer segments of cones. Vis Neurosci 34: doi: 10.1017/S0952523817000013.

27. Sato S, Kefalov VJ. (2016) cis Retinol oxidation regulates photoreceptor access to the retina visual cycle and cone pigment regeneration. J Physiol. 594(22):6753-6765.

28. Sakurai K, Vinberg F, Wang T, Chen J, Kefalov VJ. (2016) The Na+/Ca2+, K+ exchanger 2 modulates mammalian cone phototransduction. Sci Rep 6:32521. doi: 10.1038/srep32521.

29. Ding X.Q., Thapa A., Ma H., Xu J., Elliott M.H., Rodgers K.K., Smith M.L., Wang J.S., Pittler S.J., Kefalov V.J. (2016) The B3 subunit of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channel regulates the light responses of cones and contributes to the channel structural flexibility. J Biol Chem 291:8721-34

30. Razafsky D., Ward C., Potter C., Zhu W., Xue Y., Kefalov V.J., Fong L.G., Young S.G., Hodzic D. (2016) Lamin B1 and lamin B2 are long-lived proteins with distinct functions in retinal development. Mol Biol Cell 27:1928-37.

31. Frederiksen R., Nymark S., Kolesnikov A.V., Berry J.D., Adler L., Koutalos Y., Kefalov V.J., Cornwall M.C. (2016) Rhodopsin kinase and arrestin binding control the decay of photoactivated rhodopsin and dark adaptation of mouse rods. J Gen Physiol 148:1-11.

32. Xue Y., Shen S.Q., Corbo J.C., Kefalov V.J. (2015) Circadian and light-driven regulation of rod dark adaptation. Sci Rep 5:17616. doi: 10.1038/srep17616.

33. Enright, J. M., Toomey, M.B., Sato, S., Temple, S.E., Allen, J., Nagy, L.D., Johnson, K.M., Xiao, Y., How, M.J., Johnson, S.L., Roberts, N., Kefalov, V.J., Guengerich, F. P., Corbo, J.C. (2015) Cyp27c1 Red-Shifts the Spectral Sensitivity of Photoreceptors by Converting Vitamin A1 into A2. Curr Biol 25:3048-57.

34. Kolesnikov, A.V., Maeda, A., Tang, P.H., Imanishi, Y., Palczewski, K., Kefalov, V.J. (2015) Retinol dehydrogenase 8 and ATP-binding cassette transporter 4 modulate dark adaptation of M-cones in mammalian retina. J Phyiol 593:4923-41.

35. Vinberg, F., Wang, T., Molday, R.S., Chen, J., Kefalov, V.J. (2015) A new mouse model for stationary night blindness with mutant Slc24a1 explains the pathophysiology of the associated human disease. Hum Mol Genet 24:5915-29.

36. Zhou, Z., Vinberg, F., Schottler, F., Doggett, T.A., Kefalov, V.J., Ferguson, T.A. (2015) Autophagy supports color vision. Autophagy 11:1821-32.

37. Ruzycki, P.A., Tran, N.M., Kolesnikov, A.V., Kefalov, V.J., Chen, S. (2015) Graded gene expression changes determine phenotype severity in mouse models of CRX-associated retinopathies. Genome Biology 16: doi: 10.1186/s13059-015-0732-z.

38. Berkowitz, B.A., Kern, T.S., Bissig, D, Patel, P, Bhatia, A, Kefalov, V.J., Roberts, R. (2015) Systemic retinaldehyde treatment corrects retinal oxidative stress, rod dysfunction and impaired visual performance in diabetic mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 56:6294-303.

39. Berkowitz, B.A., Gorgis J., Patel, A., Baameur, F., Gurevich, V.V., Craft, C.M., Kefalov, V.J., Roberts, R. (2015) Development of an MRI biomarker sensitive to tetrameric visual arrestin 1 and its reduction via light-evoked translocation in vivo. FASEB J 29:554-64.

40. Xue, Y, Shen, S.Q., Jui, J, Rupp, A.C., Byrne, L.C., Hattar, S, Flannery, J.G, Corbo, J.C., Kefalov, V.J. (2015) CRALBP supports the mammalian retina visual cycle and cone vision. J Clin Invest 125:727-738.

41. Tracy, C.M.*, Kolesnikov, A.V.*, Blake, D.R., Chen, C.-K., Baehr, W., Kefalov, V.J.#, Willardson, B.M.# (2015) Retinal cone photoreceptors require phosducin-like protein 1for G-protein complex assembly and signaling. PLoS One 10: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117129.

42. Sakurai K., Chen J., Khani S., Kefalov V.J. (2015) Regulation of mammalian cone phototransduction by recoverin and rhodopsin kinase. J Biol Chem 290:9239-9250.

43. Zhang, N., Tsybovsky, Y., Kolesnikov, A.V., Rozanowska, M., Swider, M., Schwartz, S.B., Stone, E.M., Palczewska, G., Maeda, A., Kefalov, V.J., Jacobson, S.G., Cideciyan, A.V., Palczewski, K. (2015) Protein misfolding and the etiology of ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations. Hum Mol Genet 24:3220-3237.

44. Vinberg, F., Kefalov, V.J. (2015) Simultaneous ex vivo functional testing of two retinas by in vivo electroretinogram system. JoVE 6: doi: 10.3791/52855.

45. Sarria, I, Pahlberg, J, Cao, Y, Kolesnikov, A.V., Kefalov, V.J., Sampath, A.P., Martemyanov, K.A. (2015) Sensitivity and kinetics of signal transmission at the first visual synapse differentially impact visually-guided behavior. eLife 4: doi: 10.7554/eLife.06358.

46. Palczewska, G., Vinberg, F., Stremplewski, P., Bircher, M.P., Salom?, D., Komar, K., Zhang, J., Cascella, M.#, Wojtkowski, M.#, Kefalov, V.J.#, Palczewski, K.# (2014) Human infrared vision is triggered by two-photon chromophore isomerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:E5445-5454.

47. Wang, J.S., Nymark, S., Frederiksen, R., Estevez, M.E., Shen, S.Q., Corbo, J.C., Cornwall, M.C., Kefalov, V.J. (2014) Chromophore supply rate-limits mammalian photoreceptor dark adaptation. J Neurosci 34:11212-11221.

48. Vinberg, F., Kolesnikov, A,V,, Kefalov, V.J. (2014) Ex Vivo ERG analysis of photoreceptors using an In Vivo ERG system. Vision Res 101C:108-117.

49. Kefalov, V.J., Arshavsky, V.Y. (2014) FASEB Science Research Conference on Biology and Chemistry of Vision. FASEB J 28:2395-2397.

50. Sundermeier, T.R., Zhang, N., Vinberg, F., Mustafi, D., Kohno, H., Golczak, M., Bai, X., Maeda, A., Kefalov, V.J., Palczewski, K. (2014) DICER1 is essential for survival of postmitotic rod photoreceptor cells in mice. FASEB J 28:3780-3791.

51. Sundermeier, T.R., Vinberg, F., Mustafi, D., Bai, X., Kefalov, V.J. & Palczewski, K. (2014) R9AP overexpression alters phototransduction kinetics in iCre75 mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 55, 1339-1347.

52. Sakami, S., Kolesnikov, A.V., Kefalov, V.J., Palczewski, K. (2014) P23H opsin knock-in mice reveal a novel step in retinal rod disc morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet 23:1723-1741.

53. Zhang, N., Kolesnikov, A.V., Jastrzebska, B., Mustafi, D., Sawada, O., Maeda, T., Genoud, C., Engel, A., Kefalov, V.J., Palczewski, K. (2013). Knock-in E150K opsin mutant mice, a model for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa, exhibit structural disorganization of photoreceptor internal membranes. J Clin Invest 123, 121-137.

54. Montana, C.L., Kolesnikov, A.V., Shen, S.Q., Myers, C.A., Kefalov, V.J., Corbo, J.C. (2013) Reprogramming of adult rod photoreceptors prevents retinal degeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110, 1732-1737.

55. Cain, M.D., Vo, B.Q., Kolesnikov, A.V., Kefalov, V.J., Culican, S.M., Kerschensteiner, D., Blumer, K.J. (2013) An Allosteric Regulator of R7-RGS Proteins Influences Light-Evoked Activity and Glutamatergic Waves in the Inner Retina. PLoS One 8:e82276.

56. Deng, W.T., Sakurai, K., Kolandaivelu, S., Kolesnikov, A.V., Dinculescu, A., Li, J., Zhu, P., Liu, X., Pang, J., Chiodo, V.A, Boye, S.L., Chang, B., Ramamurthy, V., Kefalov, V.J., Hauswirth, W.W. (2013) Cone phosphodiesterase-6a' restores rod function and confers distinct physiological properties in the rod phosphodiesterase-6ß-deficient rd10 mouse. J Neurosci 33:11745-53.

57. Lai, C.W., Kolesnikov, A.V., Frederick, J.M., Blake, D.R., Jiang, .L, Stewart, J.S., Chen, C.K., Barrow, J.R., Baehr, W., Kefalov, V.J., Willardson, B.M. (2013) Phosducin-like protein 1 is essential for G-protein assembly and signaling in retinal rod photoreceptors. J Neurosci 33:7941-51.

58. Molnar, T., Barabas, P., Birnbaumer, L., Punzo, C., Kefalov, V.J., Krizaj D. (2012). Store-operated channels regulate intracellular calcium in mammalian rods. J. Physiol 590, 3465-3481.

59. Kolesnikov, A.V., Kefalov, V.J., (2012). Transretinal ERG recordings from mouse retina: rod and cone photoresponses. J Vis Exp 61, pii: 3424, doi: 10.3791/3424.

60. Lomonosova, E., Kolesnikov, A.V., Kefalov, V.J., Kisselev OG. (2012) Signaling states of rhodopsin in rod disk membranes lacking transducin ß?-complex. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 53, 1225-1233.

61. Kefalov, V.J. (2012). Rod and cone visual pigments and phototransduction through pharmacological, genetic, and physiological approaches. J Biol Chem 287, 1635-1641.

62. Sakurai, K., Chen, J., Kefalov, V.J. (2011). Role of guanylyl cyclase modulation in mouse cone phototransduction. J Neurosci 31, 7991-8000.

63. Kolesnikov, A.V., Tang, P.H., Parker, R.O., Crouch, R.K., Kefalov, V.J. (2011). The mammalian cone visual cycle promotes M/L-cone pigment regeneration independently of the interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein. J Neurosci 31, 7900-7909.

64. Kolesnikov, A.V., Rikimaru, L., Hennig, A.K., Lukasiewucz, P.D., Fliesler, S., Govardovskii, V.I., Kefalov.#, V.J., Kisselev, O.G. # (2011). G-protein ß?-complex is critical for efficient signal amplification in vision. J Neurosci 31, 8067-8077.

65. Sakurai K., Young J.E., Kefalov V.J. #, Khani S.C. # (2011). Variation in rhodopsin kinase expression alters the dim flash response shut off and the light adaptation in rod photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52, 6793-6800.

66. Parker R., Wang J.S., Kefalov V.J., Crouch R.K. (2011). Interphotoreceptor Retinoid-Binding Protein as the Physiologically Relevant Carrier of 11-cis-Retinol in the Cone Visual Cycle. J Neurosci 31, 4714-4719.

67. Wang J.S. and Kefalov V.J. (2011). The cone-specific visual cycle. Prog Retin Eye Res 30, 115-128.

68. Kolesnikov A.V., Fan J., Crouch R.K., Kefalov V.J. (2010). Age-related deterioration of rod vision in mice. J Neurosci 30, 11222-11231.

69. Cao Y., Kolesnikov A.V., Masuho I., Kefalov V.J., Martemyanov K.A. (2010). Membrane anchoring subunits specify selective regulation of RGS9.Gbeta5 GAP complex in photoreceptor neurons. J Neurosci 30, 13784-13793.

70. Fan*, J., Sakurai*, K., Crouch, R. K., Chen, C.-K., Rohrer, B., Wu, B. X., Yau, K.-Y., Kefalov, V. J., Crouch, R. K. (2010). Deletion of GRK1 causes retina degeneration through a transducin-independent mechanism. J. Neurosci 30:2496-2503.

71. Kefalov, V. J., Cornwall M. C., Fain, G. L. (2010) Physiological studies of the interaction between opsin and chromophore in rod and cone visual pigments. Methods Mol Biol 625:95-114.

72. Kefalov, V. J. Phototransduction: Phototransduction in Cones. In: Darlene A. Dartt, editor. Encyclopedia of the Eye, Vol 3. Oxford: Academic Press; 389-396.

73. Wang, J. and Kefalov, V.J. (2010). Single-cell suction recordings from mouse cone photoreceptors. J Vis Exp 35 pii: 1681, doi: 10.3791/1681.

74. Whitcomb T.L., Sakurai K., Brown B.M., Young J.E., Sheflin L., Dlugos C., Craft C.M., Kefalov V.J., Khani S.C. (2010). Effect of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 (Grk1) overexpression on rod photoreceptor cell viability. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 513:1728-1737.

75. Kefalov, V.J. (2009) Visual perception and transduction. In Sage Encyclopedia of Perception (London: Sage Publications).

76. Deng, W., Sakurai, K., Liu, J., Dinculescu, A., Li, J., Pang, J., Min, S., Chiodo, V., Boye, S., Chang, B., Kefalov, V.J., and Hauswirth, W. (2009). Functional interchangeability of rod and cone transducin a-subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:17681-17686.

77. Wang, J. and Kefalov, V.J. (2009). An alternative pathway mediates the mouse and human cone visual cycle. Current Biology 19:1665-1669.

78. Yamashita T., Liu J., Gao J., LeNoue S., Wang C., Kaminoh J., Bowne S.J., Sullivan L.S., Daiger S.P., Zhang K., Fitzgerald M.E., Kefalov V.J., Zuo J. (2009). Essential and synergistic roles of RP1 and RP1L1 in rod photoreceptor axoneme and retinitis pigmentosa. J Neurosci 29:9748-60.

79. Wang, J., Estevez, M.E., Cornwall, M.C., and Kefalov, V.J. (2009). Intra-retinal visual cycle required for rapid and complete cone dark adaptation. Nature Neuroscience 12:295-302. (Journal Cover).

80. Fu*, Y., Kefalov*, V.J., Luo* D.-G., Xue*, T., and Yau, K.-W. (2008). Quantal noise from human red cone pigment. Nature Neuroscience 11(5):565-571.

81. Luo, D.G., Kefalov, V.J., Yau, K.-W. (2008). Phototransduction in Rods and Cones. In The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference. (New York: Academic Press), pp. 269-301.

82. Shi, G., Yau, K.-W., Chen, J., Kefalov, V.J. (2007). Signaling properties of a short-wave cone visual pigment and its role in phototransduction. J Neurosci 27:10084-93.

83. Imai*, H., Kefalov*, V.J., Sakurai*, K., Chisaka, O., Ueda, Y., Onishi, A., Morizumi, T., Fu, Y., Ichikawa, K., Nakatani, K., Honda, Y., Chen, J., Yau, K.-W., and Shichida, Y. (2007). Molecular properties of rhodopsin and rod function. J Biol Chem 282:6677-84.

84. Kefalov, V.J., Estevez, M.E., Kono, M., Goletz, P.W., Crouch, R.K., Cornwall, M.C., and Yau, K.-W. (2005). Breaking the Covalent Bond- A Pigment Property that Contributes to Desensitization in Cones. Neuron 46, 879-890.

85. Kefalov*, V.J., Fu*, Y., Marsh-Armstrong, N., and Yau, K.-W. (2003). Role of visual pigment properties in rod and cone phototransduction. Nature. 425, 526-531.

86. Crouch, R.K., Kefalov, V.J., Gartner, W., and Cornwall, M.C. (2002). Use of retinal analogues for the study of visual pigment function. Methods Enzymol 343, 29-48.

87. Kefalov, V.J., Crouch, R.K., and Cornwall, M.C. (2001). Role of noncovalent binding of 11-cis-
retinal to opsin in dark adaptation of rod and cone photoreceptors. Neuron 29, 749-55.

88. Corson, D.W., Kefalov, V.J., Cornwall, M.C., and Crouch, R.K. (2000). Effect of 11-cis 13-demethylretinal on phototransduction in bleach-adapted rod and cone photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol 116, 283-97. (Journal Cover)

89. Cornwall, M.C., Jones, G.J., Kefalov, V.J., Fain, G.L., and Matthews, H.R. (2000). Electrophysiological methods for measurement of activation of phototransduction by bleached visual pigment in salamander photoreceptors. Methods Enzymol 316, 224-52.

90. Kefalov, V.J., Cornwall, M.C., and Crouch, R.K. (1999). Occupancy of the chromophore binding site of opsin activates visual transduction in rod photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol 113, 491-503.

91. Davi, M., Yakimoff, N., Bocheva, N., Kefalov, V.J. (1993). The relative roles of vertices and sides in determining perceptual centers within shapes. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 53, 367-375.

(* equal contribution; # co-corresponding author)
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