Xiangmin Xu

picture of Xiangmin  Xu

Professor and Chancellor's Fellow, Anatomy and Neurobiology; Director, Center for Neural Circuit Mapping
School of Medicine

Ph.D., Vanderbilt University, 2004, Psychology / Neuroscience
Bachelor of Medicine, Shanghai Medical University, 1995

Phone: (949) 824-0040
Email: xiangmin.xu@uci.edu

University of California, Irvine
Office Room: 2048
Interdisciplinary Science and Engineering Building (ISEB)
Irvine, CA 92697
Research Interests
Neural circuits, Vision, Learning and memory, Alzheimer’s disease, Viral genetic tool development
Academic Distinctions
07/2020 Awarded the title of Chancellor’s Fellow, University of California, Irvine
07/2020 – 06/2024 Standing Member, Pathophysiological Basis of Mental Disorders and Addictions Study Section (PMDA), Center for Scientific Review, National Institutes of Health
04/2014 Recipient of the 2014 C. J. Herrick Award in Neuroanatomy of the American Association of Anatomists
09/2013 Recipient of the 2013 Krieg Cortical Explorer Award, the Cajal Club Foundation
04/2013 2013 Randolph Blake Early Career Award, Vanderbilt University
08/2012 2012 NARSAD Young Investigator Award, Brain & Behavior Research Foundation
2010-2011 The Best 1st Year Course Award from the Association of Students, UCI School of Medicine [Histology, teaching faculty]
12/2006 NIH Pathway to Independence Award (K99/R00), National Institute on Drug Abuse / NIH
11/2004 Kreig Cortical Kudos Award (Cortical Scholar Award), the Cajal Club / Society for Neuroscience
09/1998 - 06/1999 University Scholarship & Fellowship, Vanderbilt University
Research Abstract
Dr. Xu's interests are in neural circuitry, which applies to understanding the neurobiology of sensory perception, learning and memory, stress, and epilepsy. Understanding how neural circuits give rise to perception, cognition, and behavior is central to understanding how the brain works. This is also key to understanding the mechanistic basis of neurological disorders. Our research is focused on understanding cell-type specific cortical circuit organization and function, using combined approaches of electrophysiology, optical stimulation and imaging, molecular genetics and viral tracing. Our newest direction is to apply our neural circuit findings towards treating Alzheimer’s disease.
Xu, X.*, Olivas, N.D., Levi, R., Ikrar, T., Nenadic, Z. (2010) High resolution and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology 103, 2301 – 2312. * Senior and corresponding author

Shi, Y., Nenadic, Z., Xu, X. (2010) Novel use of matched filtering for synaptic event detection and extraction. PLoS ONE 5(11): e15517. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015517.

Olivas, N.D., Quintanar-Zilinskas, V., Nenadic, Z., Xu, X. (2012) Laminar circuit organization and response modulation in mouse visual cortex. Frontiers in Neural Circuits 6:70. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2012.00070 [PMCID: PMC3464489]

Ahrar, S., Nguyen, T.V., Shi, Y., Thomas, P.V., Ikrar, T., Xu, X.*, Hui, E.E.* (2013) Optical stimulation and imaging of functional brain circuitry in a laminar flow chamber. Lab Chip 13:536-41. [PMID: 23044655] * Co-corresponding Authors

Haettig, J.#, Sun, Y.#, Wood, M.A.*, Xu, X*. (2013) Cell-type specific inactivation of hippocampal CA1 disrupts location-dependent object recognition in the mouse. Learning & Memory 20:139-146. [PMID: 23418393] #Co-first authors; * Co-corresponding Authors

Kuhlman, S.J. #, Olivas, N.D. #, Tring, E., Ikrar, T., Xu, X.*, Trachtenberg, J.T.* (2013) A disinhibitory microcircuit initiates critical period plasticity in visual cortex. Nature (Advanced Online Publication): August 2013. DOI: 10.1038/nature12485. #Co-first authors; * Co-corresponding Authors

San Antonio, A., Liban, K., Ikrar, T., Tsyganovskiy, E., Xu, X. (2013). Distinct physiological and developmental properties of hippocampal CA2 subfield revealed using anti-Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4) immunostaining. Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2013 Oct 25. doi: 10.1002/cne.23486. [Epub ahead of print].

Ikrar, T., Guo, N., He, K., Besnard, A., Levinson, S., Hill, A., Lee, H., Hen, R., Xu, X.*, Sahay, A. * Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus. Frontiers in Neural Circuits, 26 December 2013 | doi: 10.3389/fncir.2013.00204. * Co-corresponding Authors

Kuhlman, S.J. #, Olivas, N.D. #, Tring, E., Ikrar, T., Xu, X.*, Trachtenberg, J.T.* (2013) A disinhibitory microcircuit initiates critical period plasticity in visual cortex. Nature 501, 543-546. [PMCID: PMC3962838] # Co-first authors; * Co-corresponding authors

Andrew, S., Liban, K., Ikrar, T., Tsyganovskiy, E., Xu, X. (2013). Distinct physiological and developmental properties of hippocampal CA2 subfield revealed using anti-Purkinje cell protein 4 (PCP4) immunostaining. Journal of Comparative Neurology (2013 doi: 10.1002/cne.23486). [Epub ahead of print] [PMCID: PMC4001794]

Ikrar, T., Guo, N., He, K., Besnard, A., Levinson, S., Hill, A., Lee, H., Hen, R., Xu, X.*, Sahay, A.* (2013) Adult neurogenesis modifies excitability of the dentate gyrus. Frontiers in Neural Circuits (2013 doi: 10.3389/fncir.2013.00204). [PMCID: PMC3872742] * Co-corresponding authors

Shi, Y., Ikrar, T., Olivas, N.D., Xu, X. (2013) Bi-directional global spontaneous network activity immediately precedes the canonical unidirectional circuit organization in the developing hippocampus. Journal of Comparative Neurology (2013 doi: 10.1002/cne.23528). [Epub ahead of print] [PMID: 24357090]

Parks, G. #, Olivas, N.D. #, Ikrar, T. #, Sanathara, N., Wang, L., Wang, Z., Civelli, O. *, Xu, X. * (2014) Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: Implications for sleep and arousal. Journal of Physiology (http://jp.physoc.org/content/early/2014/03/17/jphysiol.2013.268771.long) [Epub ahead of print] [PMID: 24639485] # Co-first authors; * Co-corresponding authors

Sun, Y., Nguyen, A., Nguyen, J., Le, L., Saur, D., Choi, J., Callaway, E.M., Xu, X. (2014) Cell-type specific circuit connectivity of hippocampal CA1 revealed through Cre-dependent rabies tracing. Cell Reports 7: 269–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2014.02.030. [PMCID: PMC3998524]
Nguyen AQ, Dela Cruz JA, Sun Y, Holmes TC, Xu X. Genetic cell targeting uncovers specific neuronal types and distinct subregions in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Comp Neurol. 2015 Dec 30; PubMed PMID: 26718312.

Xu X, Olivas ND, Ikrar T, Peng T, Holmes TC, Nie Q, Shi Y. Primary visual cortex shows laminar-specific and balanced circuit organization of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connectivity. J Physiol. 2016 Apr 1;594 (7):1891-910. PubMed PMID: 26844927.

Xu X, Ikrar T, Sun Y, Santos R, Holmes, TC, Francesconi W, Berton, F. High-resolution and cell-type-specific photostimulation mapping shows weak excitatory versus strong inhibitory inputs in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. J Neurophysiol. 2016, 115:3204-16. [PMID: 27052587]

Xu X, Sun Y, Holmes, TC, López A. Non-canonical connections between the subiculum and hippocampal CA1. J Comp Neurol. 2016, 524:3666-3673 [PMID: 27150503]

Baohan, A., Ikrar, T., Tring, E., Xu, X.*, Trachtenberg, T.* Pten and EphB4 regulate the establishment of perisomatic inhibition in mouse visual cortex. Nature Communications 2016 7:12829 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12829 * Co-corresponding Authors

Sun, Y., Ikrar, T., Davis, M.F., Gong, N., Zheng, X., Luo, Z.D., Lai, C., Mei, L., Holmes, T.C., Gandhi, S.P., Xu, X.* Neuregulin-1 / ErbB4 signaling regulates visual cortical plasticity. Neuron 92:160-173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2016.08.033 [PMID: 27641496] * Corresponding Author

Stephany, C., Ikrar, T., Nguyen, C., Xu, X.*, McGee, A.W.* Nogo receptor 1 confines a dishinhibitory microcircuit to the critical period in visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2016, 36:11006-11012. * Co-corresponding Authors

Garcia-Junco-Clemente, P., Ikrar, T., Tring, E., Xu, X., Ringach, D.L. & Trachtenberg, J.T. An inhibitory pull-push circuit in frontal cortex Nature Neuroscience 2017, 20:389-392. doi: 10.1038/nn.4483. [PMID: 28114295]

Yanjun Sun, Steven Grieco, Todd Holmes, and Xiangmin Xu. Local and long-range circuit connections to hilar mossy cells in the dentate gyrus. eNuro 2017 ENEURO.0097-17.2017. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0097-17.2017.
Grieco, S.F., Holmes, T.H., Xu, X. (2018) Neuregulin directed molecular mechanisms of visual cortical plasticity. Journal of Comparative Neurology. 2018 Feb 21. doi: 10.1002/cne.24414. [Epub ahead of print]

Lin, X., Itoga, C.A., Taha, S., Li, M.H., Chen, R., Sami, K., Berton, F., Francesconi, W., Xu, X. c-Fos mapping of brain regions activated by multi-modal and electric foot shock stress. Neurobiology of Stress. 2018 Volume 8, February 2018, Pages 92-102 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2018.02.001

Yulin Shi*, Steven Grieco*, Todd Holmes, and Xiangmin Xu (2019) Development of local circuit connections to hilar mossy cells in the mouse dentate gyrus. eNeuro 7 March 2019, ENEURO.0370-18.2019; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1523/ENEURO.0370-18.2019

Christy Itoga, Yuncai Chen, Cameron Fateri, Paula Echeverry, Jennifer Lai, Jasmine Delgado, Shapatur Badhon, Annabel Short, Tallie Z. Baram, Xiangmin Xu. (2019) New Viral-Genetic Mapping Uncovers an Enrichment of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Expressing Neuronal Inputs to the Nucleus Accumbens from Stress-Related Brain Regions. Journal of Comparative Neurology 2019 Mar 12. doi: 10.1002/cne.24676. [Epub ahead of print]

Grieco, Steven; Wang, Gina; Mahapatra, Ananya; Lai, Cary; Holmes, Todd; Xu, Xiangmin (2019) Neuregulin and ErbB expression is regulated by development and sensory experience in mouse visual cortex. Journal of Comparative Neurology Aug 27. doi: 10.1002/cne.24762. [Epub ahead of print]

Nian Gong, Garo Hagopian, Todd C. Holmes, Z. David Luo*, and Xiangmin Xu* (2019) Functional Reorganization of Local Circuit Connectivity in Superficial Spinal Dorsal Horn with Neuropathic Pain States. eNeuro 2019 Sep 18. pii: ENEURO.0272-19.2019. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0272-19.2019. [Epub ahead of print]

Yanjun Sun *, Suoqin Jin *, Xiaoxiao Lin, Lujia Chen, Xin Qiao, Li Jiang, Pengcheng Zhou, Kevin G. Johnston , Peyman Golshani, Qing Nie, Todd C. Holmes, Douglas A. Nitz #, Xiangmin Xu # (2019) CA1-projecting subiculum neurons facilitate object–place learning. Nature Neuroscience, published: 23 September 2019 https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0496-y

Guo, Zhi-Ling #; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Samaniego, Tracy; Isreb, Alexander; Cao, Stacey; Malik, Shaista; Holmes, Todd; Xu, Xiangmin # (2019) Fos-CreER Based Genetic Mapping of Forebrain Regions Activated by Acupuncture. Journal of Comparative Neurology 2019 Oct 10. doi: 10.1002/cne.24789. [Epub ahead of print]

Michael G Frantz, Emily C Crouse, Guela Sokhadze, Taruna Ikrar, Céleste-Élise Stephany, Collins Nguyen, Xiangmin Xu, Aaron W McGee (2020) Layer 4 gates experience-dependent plasticity in visual cortex independent of a canonical microcircuit. Current Biology, August 3, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.067
Steven F Grieco, Xin Qiao, Xiaoting Zheng, Yongjun Liu, Lujia Chen, Hai Zhang, Jeffrey Gavornik, Cary Lai, Sunil Gandhi, Todd C Holmes, Xiangmin Xu (2020) Subanesthetic ketamine reactivates adult cortical plasticity to restore vision from amblyopia. Current Biology https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.07.008

Xiangmin Xu, Todd C. Holmes, Min-Hua Luo, Kevin T. Beier, Gregory D. Horwitz, Fei Zhao, Wenbo Zeng, May Hui, Bert L. Semler, Rozanne M. Sandri-Goldin (2020) Viral vectors for neural circuit mapping and recent advances in trans-synaptic anterograde tracers. Neuron (PRIMER review article) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.07.010

Yong-Jun Liu, Elizabeth Spangenberg, Bryan Tang, Todd C Holmes, Kim N Green, Xiangmin Xu. (2020) Microglia elimination increases neural circuit connectivity and activity in adult mouse cortex. J Neurosci. 2020 Dec 23; JN-RM-2140-20. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2140-20.2020. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33380470

XiaoTing Zheng, Kirstie J. Salinas, Dario X. Figueroa Velez, Taylor Nakayama, Xiaoxiao Lin, Xiangmin Xu, Sunil P. Gandhi. (2021) Host Interneurons Mediate Cortical Plasticity Reactivated by Embryonic Inhibitory Cell Transplantation. Nature Communications 2021 Feb 8;12(1):862. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21097-4. PMID: 33558487.

Steven F. Grieco, Xin Qiao, Kevin Johnston, Lujia Che1, Renetta R. Nelson, Cary Lai, Todd C. Holmes, Xiangmin Xu (2021). Neuregulin signaling mediates the acute and sustained antidepressant effects of subanesthetic ketamine. Translational Psychiatry 2021 Feb 24;11(1):144. doi: 10.1038/s41398-021-01255-4. PMID: 33627623

Jennifer Wong, Steven Grieco, Karoni Dutt, Luija Chen, Jacquelyn Thelin, George Andrew Inglis, Shangrila Parvin, Sandra Garraway, Xiangmin Xu, Alan Goldin, and Andrew Escayg (2021). Autistic-like behavior, spontaneous seizures, and increased neuronal excitability in a Scn8a mouse model. Neuropsychopharmacolog https://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-021-00985-9

Zhaoxia Yu#, Michele Guindani, Steven F. Grieco, Lujia Chen, Todd C. Holmes, Xiangmin Xu# (2021) Beyond t-Test and ANOVA: applications of mixed-effects models for more rigorous statistical analysis in neuroscience research. Neuron (in press)
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