Stephanie Chee-Yee Tjen-A-Looi

picture of Stephanie Chee-Yee Tjen-A-Looi

Project Scientist, Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine
School of Medicine

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1994, Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences/Physiology
M.S., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1991, Veterinary Science
B.S., University of California, Davis, 1987, Nutrition Science

Phone: (949) 824-8161
Email: stjenalo@uci.edu

University of California, Irvine
C240 Medical Science
Mail Code: 4075
Irvine, CA 92697
Research Interests
Cardiovascular regulation, Neurophysiology, Acupuncture
URL
Academic Distinctions
Faculty Career Development Award, University of California, Irvine
Sigma XI COM most innovative topic poster award, University of California, Irvine
Post-doctoral NIH Fellowship Award
Proctor and Gamble Graduate Student Award, American Physiology Society
Department of Health and Biomedical Science Student Award, UW-Madison
Research Abstract
The most pertinent research areas are cardiovascular regulation and neurophysiology. These studies are interrelated and allow us to understand the neuronal pathways involved in the integration of visceral and somatic afferents in the central nervous system such as the medullary, midbrain and hypothalamic regions. The increase in blood pressure occurring during myocardial ischemia activating cardiac afferents or gastric distention as well as abdominal ischemia innervating the visceral afferent nerve fibers involves autonomic reflex responses. Stimulation of the visceral afferents leads to excitatory reflexes and involves N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), non-NMDA spinal receptors, endothelial (nitric oxide) NO, neuronal NO, free radicals and among others. Interestingly, electroacupuncture (EA) through the stimulation of somatic nerves reduces the visceral sympathoexcitatory reflexes through specific opioid receptors in the rostral ventral lateral medullary (rVLM) neurons. Recent studies have demonstrated that the neurons in the cardiovascular premotor sympathetic rVLM as well as the ventrolateral periaqueductal midbrain and arcuate hypothalamus process the convergence of somatic and visceral input during acupuncture stimulation. Ongoing studies investigate the underlying mechanisms and neuronal pathways involved with modulation of the hypertensive responses. Neurochemicals opioids, endocannabinoid, GABA, glutamate, acetylcholine, nociceptin and serotonin contribute to the action of acupuncture and few have been identified to play a role in the long lasting effect of EA. Genetic changes may also contribute to the prolonged action of acupuncture.
Publications
1. 2001 Longhurst, J.C., Tjen-A-Looi, S., Fu, L-W.: Cardiac sympathetic afferent activation provoked by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion: Mechanisms and reflexes. Eds. M.P. Chapleau, F. Abboud In: Neuro-Cardiovascular Regulation : From Molecule to Man. The New York Academy of Sciences 940:74-95. PMID: 11458709

2. 2007 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C. and. Longhurst, J.C.: Mechanistic and Physiologic Links between CAM and the Cardiovascular System. Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Action of Acupuncture. Eds. M.W.Krucoff and J.H.K Vogel. In: Integrative Cardiology, chapter VII b. Medical Publishing, McGraw-Hill.

3. 2012 Li P., Tjen-A-Looi S.C. and Longhurst J.C.: Acupuncture's Role in Cardiovascular Homeostasis. Eds. Y Xia, G. Ding, G. Wu. In: Current Research on Acupuncture, Chapter 15. New York: Springer 2012.

4. 2013 Li P. and Tjen-A-Looi S.C.: Mechanism of the Inhibitory Effect of Electroacupuncture on Experimental Arrhythmias. In: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, review article. 6(2):69-81. PMID: 23591002

5. 2013 Longhurst, J.C. and Tjen-A-Looi, S.C.: Acupuncture Regulation of Blood Pressure: Two Decades of Research. In: International Review of Neurobiology: Neurobiology of Acupuncture, Vol 3, Chapter 13. Academic Press, Elsevier. PMID: 24215927

6. 2015 Yeung, W-F, Chung, K-F, Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C., Lao, L.: Acupuncture as a potential treatment for insomnia. In: Science 350 (6259 Suppl) S84-S85.

7. 2015 Cheng, L., Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S.C., Longhurst, J.C.: What do we understand from clinical and mechanistic studies on acupuncture treatment for hypertension? BioMed Central, Chinese Medicine 10:36. DOI 10.1186/s13020-015-0070-9

8. 2017 Longhurst, J.C., Tjen-A-Looi, S.C., Li, P.: Defining acupuncture’s place in western medicine. http://www.scientia.global/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/John-Longhurst.pdf

9. 2017 Tjen-A-Looi, S.C. and Fu, L.W.: Sustained effects of acupuncture in treatment of chronic constipation. Ann Palliat Med 2017. doi: 10.21037/apm.2017.03.02.

10. 2017 Longhurst, J.C. and Tjen-A-Looi, S.C.: Evidenced-based blood pressure reducing actions of electroacupuncture: Mechanisms and clinical application. Acta Physiologica Sinica (Sheng Li Xue Bao), 69(5): 587-597.

11. 2018 Tjen-A-Looi, S.C. and Longhurst, C.A.: John C. Longhurst, MD, PhD (1947-2018). Pioneer in Acupuncture Hypertension Research. American Journal of Physiology, 314(6): H1153-H1154.
 
1. 2001 Longhurst, J.C., Tjen-A-Looi, S., Fu, L-W.: Cardiac sympathetic afferent activation provoked by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion: Mechanisms and reflexes. Eds. M.P. Chapleau, F. Abboud In: Neuro-Cardiovascular Regulation : From Molecule to Man. The New York Academy of Sciences 940:74-95. PMID: 11458709

2. 2007 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C. and. Longhurst, J.C.: Mechanistic and Physiologic Links between CAM and the Cardiovascular System. Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Action of Acupuncture. Eds. M.W.Krucoff and J.H.K Vogel. In: Integrative Cardiology, chapter VII b. Medical Publishing, McGraw-Hill.

3. 2012 Li P., Tjen-A-Looi S.C. and Longhurst J.C.: Acupuncture's Role in Cardiovascular Homeostasis. Eds. Y Xia, G. Ding, G. Wu. In: Current Research on Acupuncture, Chapter 15. New York: Springer 2012.

4. 2013 Li P. and Tjen-A-Looi S.C.: Mechanism of the Inhibitory Effect of Electroacupuncture on Experimental Arrhythmias. In: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, review article. 6(2):69-81. PMID: 23591002

5. 2013 Longhurst, J.C. and Tjen-A-Looi, S.C.: Acupuncture Regulation of Blood Pressure: Two Decades of Research. In: International Review of Neurobiology: Neurobiology of Acupuncture, Vol 3, Chapter 13. Academic Press, Elsevier. PMID: 24215927

6. 2015 Yeung, W-F, Chung, K-F, Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C., Lao, L.: Acupuncture as a potential treatment for insomnia. In: Science 350 (6259 Suppl) S84-S85.

7. 2015 Cheng, L., Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S.C., Longhurst, J.C.: What do we understand from clinical and mechanistic studies on acupuncture treatment for hypertension? BioMed Central, Chinese Medicine 10:36. DOI 10.1186/s13020-015-0070-9

8. 2017 Longhurst, J.C., Tjen-A-Looi, S.C., Li, P.: Defining acupuncture’s place in western medicine. http://www.scientia.global/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/John-Longhurst.pdf

9. 2017 Tjen-A-Looi, S.C. and Fu, L.W.: Sustained effects of acupuncture in treatment of chronic constipation. Ann Palliat Med 2017. doi: 10.21037/apm.2017.03.02.

10. 2017 Longhurst, J.C. and Tjen-A-Looi, S.C.: Evidenced-based blood pressure reducing actions of electroacupuncture: Mechanisms and clinical application. Acta Physiologica Sinica (Sheng Li Xue Bao), 69(5): 587-597.

11. 2018 Tjen-A-Looi, S.C. and Longhurst, C.A.: John C. Longhurst, MD, PhD (1947-2018). Pioneer in Acupuncture Hypertension Research. American Journal of Physiology, 314(6): H1153-H1154.
 
1. 1992 Tjen-A-Looi, S., Lippton, H., Cary, J., Keith, I. M.: CGRP and Somatostatin modulate chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. American Journal of Physiology, 263:H681-H690. PMID 1357980

2. 1996 Tjen-A-Looi, S., Ekman, R., Osborn, J., Keith, I.: Pulmonary vascular effects by Endothelin-1 in normoxia and chronic hypoxia: a longitudinal study. American Journal of Physiology, 271:H2246-H2253.

3. 1997 Tjen-A-Looi, S., Bonham, A., Longhurst, J.: Interactions between cardiac sympathetic and cardiac vagal afferents in the nucleus tractus solitarius. American Journal of Physiology, 272:H2843-H2851.

4. 1998 Tjen-A-Looi, S., Kraiczi, H., Ekman, R., Keith, I. M.: Sensory CGRP depletion by capsaicin exacerbates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Regulatory Peptides 74:1-10.

5. 1998 Tjen-A-Looi, S., Pan, H-L., Longhurst, J.: Endogenous bradykinin activates ischemically sensitive cardiac visceral afferents through kinin B2-receptors. Journal of Physiology 510.2:633-641.

6. 1999 Chao, D. M., Shen, L. L., Tjen-A-Looi, S., Pitsillides, K. F., Li, P., Longhurst, J.C.: Naloxone reverses inhibitory effect of electroacupuncture on sympathetic cardiovascular reflex responses. American Journal of Physiology 267:H2127-H2134.

7. 2000 Keith, IM., Tjen-A-Looi, S., Kraiczi, H., Ekman, K.: Three-week neonatal hypoxia reduces blood CGRP and causes persistent pulmonary hypertension rats. American Journal of Physiology 279:H1571-H1578.

8. 2001 Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S., Longhurst, J.: Rostral ventrolateral medullary opioid receptor subtypes in the inhibitory effect of electroacupuncture on reflex autonomic response in cats. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 89:38-47.

9. 2001 Tjen-A-Looi, S., Phan, N., Longhurst, J.C.: Nitric oxide modulates sympathoexcitatory cardiac-cardiovascular reflexes elicited by bradykinin. American Journal of Physiology 281:H2010-H2017.

10. 2002 Gee, B. Y., Tjen-A-Looi, S., Hill, J., Chadal, P., Longhurst, J.: Role of spinal NMDA and non-NMDA receptors in the pressor reflex response to abdominal ischemia. American Journal of Physiology 282:R850-R857.

11. 2002 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Fu, L-W., Longhurst, J.C.: Xanthine oxidase, but not neutrophils, contributes to activation of cardiac sympathetic afferents during myocardial ischemia in cats. Journal of Physiology 543.1:327-336.

12. 2002 Li, P., Rowshan, K., Crisostomo, M., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: Effect of electroacupuncture on pressor reflex during gastric distention in rats. American Journal of Physiology 283:R1335-R1345.

13. 2003 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Li, P., Longhurst, J.C.: Prolonged Inhibition of Rostral Ventral Lateral Medullary Premotor Sympathetic Neurons by Electroacupuncture. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 453(2):119-131.

14. 2004 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Li, P., Longhurst, J.C.: Medullary substrate and differential cardiovascular response during stimulation of specific acupoints. American Journal of Physiology 287:R852-R862.

15. 2005 Zhou, W., Fu, L., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Li, P., Longhurst, J.C.: Afferent Mechanisms Underlying Stimulation Modality-Related Modulation of Acupuncture-Related Cardiovascular Responses. J Applied Physiol 98(3):872-880.

16. 2005 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Fu, L-W, Zhou, W. (Yi, S.), Longhurst, J.C.: Role of Unmyelinated Fibers in Electroacupuncture-Cardiovascular Responses. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical. 118:43-50.

17. 2005 Crisostomo, M. M., Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: Nociceptin in rVLM Mediates Electroacupuncture Inhibition of Cardiovascular Reflex Excitatory Response in Rats. Journal of Applied Physiology 98:2056-2063.

18. 2005 Zhou, W., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: Brain Stem Mechanisms Underlying Acupuncture Modality-Related Modulation of Cardiovascular in rats. Journal of Applied Physiology 99(3):851-60

19. 2006 Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: Excitatory projections from arcuate nucleus to ventrolateral to periaqueductal gray in electroacupuncture inhibition of cardiovascular reflexes. American Journal of Physiology, Heart and Circulatory Physiology 209:H2523-H2542.

20. 2006 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Li, P. and Longhurst, J.C.: Midbrain vlPAG inhibits rVLM in cardiovascular sympathoexcitatory responses during electroacupuncture. American Journal of Physiology, Heart and Circulatory Physiology 209:H2543-H2553.

21. 2006 Zhou, W., Fu, L-W, Tjen-A-Looi S. C., Guo, Z-L, Longhurst J.C.: Role of Glutamate in a Visceral Sympathoexcitatory Reflex in Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Cats. American Journal of Physiology, Heart and Circulatory Physiology 291(3):H1309- H1318.

22. 2007 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Li, P. and Longhurst, J.C.: Role of Medullary GABA, Opioids and Nociceptin in Prolonged Inhibition of Cardiovascular Sympathoexcitatory Reflexes during Electroacupuncture in Cats. American Journal of Physiology 293: H3627-H3635.

23. 2008 Guo, Z-L., Moazzami, A., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: Responses of opioid and serotonin containing medullary raphe neurons to electroacupuncture. Brain Research, 1229:125-36.

24. 2009 Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Guo, Zhi-Ling, Fu, Liang-Wu, Longhurst, J.C.: Long-Loop Pathways in Cardiovascular Electroacupuncture Responses. Journal of Applied Physiology 106(2):620-30.

25. 2009 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Li, P., Longhurst, J.C.: Processing Cardiovascular Information in the vlPAG during Electroacupuncture in Rats: Roles of Endocannabinoids and GABA. Journal of Applied Physiology 106(6):1793-9.

26. 2009 Guo, Z-L., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Fu, L-W., Longhurst, J.C.: Nitric oxide in rostral ventrolateral medulla regulates cardiac-sympathetic responses: role of synthase isoforms. American Journal of Physiology, 297(4):H1478-86.

27. 2010 Moazzami, A., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C.*, Guo, Z. L., Longhurst, J.C.: Serotonergic projection from nucleus raphe pallidus to rostral ventrolateral medulla modulates cardiovascular reflex responses during acupuncture. J Applied Physiology 108: 1336-1346. *Share first authorship.

28. 2010 Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: The Arcuate-Ventrolateral Periaqueductal Gray Reciprocal Circuit in Electroacupuncture Cardiovascular Inhibition. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 158:13-23.

29. 2010 Li, M., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: Electroacupuncture enhances preproenkephalin mRNA expression in rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats. Neurosci. Lett. 477: 61-65.

30. 2010 Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: Nucleus Raphé Pallidus participates in midbrain-medullary cardiovascular sympathoinhibition during electroacupuncture. American Journal of Physiology 299:R1369-R1376.

31. 2011 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Hsiao, A. Longhurst, J.C.: Central and Peripheral Mechanisms Underlying Gastric Distention Inhibitory Reflex Responses in Hypercapnic Acidotic Rats. American Journal of Physiology 300:H1003-H1012.

32. 2012 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Li, P., Li, M., Longhurst, J.C.: Modulation of Cardiopulmonary Depressor Reflex in Nucleus Ambiguus by Electroacupuncture: Roles of Opioids and Gamma Aminobutyric Acid. American Journal of Physiology 302(7):R833-R844.

33. 2012 Dow, J., Painovich, J., Hale, S., Longhurst, J.C., Tjen-A-Looi, S.C, Kloner, R. A.: Absence of Actions of Commonly Used Chinese Herbal Medicines and Electroacupuncture on Myocardial Infarct Size. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 17(4):403-11.

34. 2012 Li, M., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Guo, Z. L., Longhurst, J.C.: Repetitive Electroacupuncture Causes Prolonged Increased Met-enkephalin Expression in the rVLM of Conscious Rats. Brain Research 170: 30-35.

35. 2013 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Guo, Z., Li, M., Longhurst, J.C.: Medullary GABAergic Mechanisms Contribute to Electroacupuncture Modulation of Cardiovascular Depressor Responses during Gastric Distension in Rats. American Journal of Physiology 304: R321–R332. PMID: 23302958.

36. 2013 Li, M., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Guo, Z. L., Longhurst, J.C.: Electroacupuncture Modulation of Reflex Hypertension in Rats: Role of Cholecystokinin Octapeptide. American Journal of Physiology 305:R404-413. PMID: 23785073.

Summarized by World Biomedical Frontiers ISSN: 2328-0166.

37. 2014 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Guo, Z., Longhurst, J.C.: GABA in Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Participates in Electroacupuncture Modulation of Cardiopulmonary Bradycardia Reflex. American Journal of Physiology 307:R1313-1323.

38. 2015 Li, P., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Cheng, L., Liu, D., Painovich, J., Vinjamury, S., Longhurst, J.C.: Long-lasting reduction of blood pressure by electroacupuncture in patients with hypertension: randomized controlled trial. Medical Acupuncture 27, 4:253-266. DOI: 10.1089/acu.2015.1106.

39. 2016 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Guo, Z., Fu, L., Longhurst, J.C.: Paraventricular Nucleus Modulates Excitatory Cardiovascular Reflexes during Electroacupuncture. Sci. Rep. 16: 6, 25910; doi: 10.1038/srep25910 (2016).

40. 2016 Guo, Z., Longhurst, J.C., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Fu, L: elPBN neurons regulate rVLM activity through elPBN-rVLM projections during activation of cardiac sympathetic afferent nerves. American Journal of Physiology 311(2): R410-R425.

41. 2016 Li, M., S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, Z. Guo, J.C. Longhurst: Repetitive electroacupuncture attenuates cold-induced hypertension through enkephalin in the rostral ventral lateral medulla. Sci. Rep. 16:6:35791. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19672-9.

42. 2018 Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Fu, L., Guo, Z., Longhurst, J.C.: Modulation of neurally mediated vasodepression and bradycardia by electroacupuncture through opioids in nucleus tractus solitarius. Sci. Rep. 8 (1): 1900, DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-19672-9

43. 2018 Guo, Z., Fu, L., Su, H. F., Tjen-A-Looi, S. C., Longhurst, J.C.: Role of TRPV1 in acupuncture modulation of reflex excitatory cardiovascular responses. American Journal of Physiology. 314(5): R655-R666.
 
Book Chapters:
Longhurst, J. C., Tjen-A-Looi, S. , Fu, L-W.: Cardiac sympathetic afferent activation provoked by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion: Mechanisms and reflexes. Eds. M.P. Chapleau, F. Abboud In: Neuro-Cardiovascular Regulation : From Molecule to Man. The New York Academy of Sciences 940:74-95. 2001

Tjen-A-Looi SC and JC Longhurst. Mechanistic and Physiologic Links between CAM and the Cardiovascular System. Mechanisms of Cardiovascular Action of Acupuncture. Eds. MW Krucoff and J.H.K Vogel. In: Integrative Cardiology, chapter VII b. Medical Publishing, McGraw-Hill. 2007
Grant
Co-PI and co-investigator on NIH grants: HL-63313, HL-72125
Professional Societies
American Physiological Society
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Society for Neuroscience
Other Experience
Graduate Programs
Comparative Physiology

Research Center
Susan Samueli Center for Integrative Medicine
Last updated
10/10/2018