Sheldon Greenfield

Executive Co-Director, Health Policy Research Institute
School of Medicine

Donald Bren Professor
School of Medicine

Professor of Medicine
School of Medicine

B.A., Harvard College, Massachusetts, 1960, Biochemistry

M.D., University of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1964, College of Medicine

Phone: (949) 824-5430, 7286
Fax: (949) 824-3388

University of California, Irvine
100 Theory, Suite 110
Mail Code: 5800
Irvine, CA 92697

picture of Sheldon  Greenfield

URL HPRI Website
Chairman, Health Care Technology Study Section, National Center for Health Services Research, and Health Care Technology, 1988-1992.

Chair, IOM Committee to design the National Healthcare Disparities Report to Congress, 2001–2002.

Chair, Institute of Medicine Committee, From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor; Lost in Transition, 2004 – 2008.

Co-Chair, Institute of Medicine (IOM), Committee on Recommendations on National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research, 2009

Chair, Committee on Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines, IOM, 2009 – Present

Senior Co-Editor, Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 2011 – Present
Publications 1. Greenfield S, Feldman HA. Familial Carriers and Meningococcal Meningitis. New England Journal of Medicine 1967; 277:497-502.

2. Greenfield S, Feingold DS. The Synergistic Action of the Sulfonamides and Polymyxins against Serratia Marcescens. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1970; 121:555-58.

3. Greenfield S, Sheehe PR, Feldman HA. Meningococcal Carriage in a Population of "Normal" Families. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1971; 123(1): 67-73.

4. Greenfield S, Peter G, Howie VM, et al. Acquisition of Type-Specific Antibodies to Hemophilus Influenzae. Journal of Pediatrics 1972; 80:204.

5. Greenfield S, Teres D, Bushnell LS, et al: Prevention of Gram Negative Bacillary Pneumonia Using Aerosol Polymyxin as Prophylaxis, I. Effect on the Colonization of Seriously Ill Patients. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1973; 52:29-35.

6. Greenfield S, Bragg FE, McCraith DL, et al. Upper-Respiratory Tract Complaint Protocol for Physician Extenders. Archives of Internal Medicine 1974; 133:294-99.

7. Greenfield S, Freidland G, Scifers S. et al. Protocol Management of Dysuria, Frequency, and Vaginal Discharge. Annals of Internal Medicine 1974; 81:452-57.

8. Greenfield S, Anderson H, Winickoff R, et al. Management of Low Back Pain by a Protocol and a Physician Extender. Western Journal of Medicine 1975; 123:350-59.

9. Greenfield S, Lewis CE, Kaplan SH, et al. Peer Review by Criteria Mapping: Criteria for Diabetes Mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine 1975; 83:761-70.

10. Greenfield S, Komaroff AL, Anderson H. A Headache Protocol for Nurses: Effectiveness and Efficiency. Archives of Internal Medicine 1976; 136:1111-116.

11. Lelah T, Greenfield S, Brook RH. Cholecystectomy: Assessing the Quality of Medical Care using Short-term Outcome Measures. In: AD Avery, et al: Quality of Medical Care Assessment Using Outcome Measures: Eight Disease-Specific Applications 1976, Santa Monica, California: The Rand Corporation, Publication R2021/2-HEW.

12. Brook RH, Avery AD, Greenfield S, et al. Assessing the Quality of Medical Care Using Outcome Measures: An Overview of the Method. Medical Care 1977; 15(9 Suppl.) S1-S165.

13. Greenfield S, Nadler MA, Morgan MT, Shine KI. The Clinical Investigation and Management of Chest Pain in an Emergency Department: Quality Assessment by Criteria Mapping: Medical Care 1977; 15:898-905.

14. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. Criteria Mapping: Using Logic in Evaluation of Processes of Care. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals: Quality Review Bulletin 1978; 4:3-7.

15. Greenfield S, Solomon NE, Brook RH, Avery AD. Development of Outcome Criteria and Standards to Assess the Quality of Care for Patients with Osteoarthrosis. Journal of Chronic Disease 1978; 31:375-88.

16. Greenfield S, Komaroff AL, Pass TM, et al. Efficiency and Cost of Primary Care by Nurses and Physician Assistants. New England Journal of Medicine 1978; 298:305-9.

17. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Nadler MA, Deigh-Hewertson RA. Physician Preference for Criteria Mapping in Medical Care Evaluation. Journal of Family Practice 1978; 6:1079-86.

18. Greenfield S, Jordan MC. The Clinical Investigation of Lymphadenopathy in Primary Care Practice. JAMA 1978; 240:1388-93.

19. Greenfield S. Clinical Algorithms. (Editorial) Western Journal of Medicine 1978 129(3): 231-39.

20. Shoemaker WC, Hopkins JA, Greenfield S, et al. Resuscitation Algorithm for Management of Acute Emergencies. JACEP 1978; 7:361-67.

21. Worthman LG, Greenfield S, Cretin S. Quality Assessment in Emergency Medical Systems: The Criteria Mapping Method. Emergency Medical Services 1979; 8(6):94-97.

22. Hopkins JA, Shoemaker WC, Greenfield S, et al. Comparison of the Treatment of Surgical Emergencies with and without an Algorithm. Arch Surg 1980; 115:745-50.

23. Linn LS, Ware JE Jr., Greenfield S. Factor Associated with Relief from Chest Pain Following Emergency Care. Medical Care 1980; 18(6):624-34.

24. Elashoff JD, Greenfield S, Henderson D, Sturdevant RAL. Physician Recommendations of Elective Surgery for Duodenal Ulcer Patients: A Comparison of Surgeons and Medical Specialists. Gastroenterology 1980; 70:750-53.

25. Rubenstein LA, Greenfield S: The Value of the Baseline Electrocardiogram in Evaluating Acute Cardiac Complaints. JAMA 1980; 244(22):2536-39.

26. Greenfield S, Cretin S, Worthman LG, et al: Comparison of a Criteria Map to a Criteria List in Quality of Care Assessment: The Relation of Each to Outcome. Medical Care 1981; 19(3):255-72.

27. Linn LS, Greenfield S: Patient Suffering and Patient Satisfaction Among the Chronically Ill. Medical Care 1982; 20(4):425-31.

28. Greenfield S, Cretin S, Wortham LG, et al: The use of an ROC Curve to Express Quality of Care Results. Medical Decision Making 1982; 2:23-31.

29. Guzy PM, Pearce ML, Greenfield S: The Survival Benefits of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Paramedic Served Metropolitan Area.
American Journal of Public Health 1983; 73(7):766-69.

30. Greenfield S, Linn LS, Purtill NA, et al: Reverse Consultations: The Profiles of Patients Referred From Subspecialists to Generalists. Journal of Chronic Disease 1983; 36(12):883-89.

31. Gerbert B, Greenfield S, Stulbarg M, et al: Clinical Algorithms for Medical Care: Development by Practicing Physicians. Mobius 1983; 3(4):10-16.

32. Hopkins JA, Shoemaker WC, Chang PC, Schluchter M, Greenfield S: Clinical Trial of An Emergency Resuscitation Algorithm. Critical Care Medicine 1983; 1(8):621-29.

33. Shapiro MF, Lehman AS, Greenfield S: Biases in the Laboratory Diagnosis of Depression Medical Practice. Arch of Internal Med 1983; 143:2085-88.

34. Shapiro MF, Hatch RL, Greenfield S: Cost Containment and Labor-Intensive Tests: The Case of the Differential White Blood Cell Count. JAMA 1984; 252(2):231-34.

35. Kahn KL, Greenfield S: The Efficacy of Endoscopy in the Evaluation of Dyspepsia. Annals of Internal Medicine 1985; 102:266-69.

36. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Ware JE Jr.: Expanding Patient Involvement in Care: Effects on Patients Outcome. Annals of Internal Medicine 1985; 102(4):520-28.

37. Rubenstein LV, Ward NC, Greenfield S: In Pursuit of the Abnormal Serum Alkaline Phosphatase: A Clinical Dilemma. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1985; 1(1):38-43.

38. Hubbell FA, Greenfield S, Tyler J, et al: The Impact of Routine Admission Chest X-Ray on Patient Management. New England Journal of Medicine 1985; 312:209-13.

39. Kahn KL, Greenfield S: Efficacy of Endoscopy in the Evaluation of Dyspepsia. A Review of the Literature and Development of a Sound Strategy. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 1986; 8:346-58.

40. Shapiro MF, Greenfield S: The Complete Blood Count and Leukocyte Differential Count: An Approach to their Rational Application. Annals of Internal Medicine 1987; 106:65-74.

41. Greenfield S, Blanco DM, Elashoff RM, Ganz P. Patterns of Care Related to Age of Breast Cancer Patients. JAMA 1987; 257(20):2766-70.

42. Gerbert B, Stone G, Stulbarg M, Gullion D, Greenfield S: "Agreement Among Physician Assessment Methods". Medical Care 1988; 26(6):519-35.

43. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Ware JE, Jr., Martin E, Frank H: Patient Participation in Medical Care: Effects on Blood Sugar Control and Quality of Life in Diabetes, Journal General Internal Medicine 1988;3:448-57.

44. Greenfield S, Aronow H, Elashoff R, Watanabe D: Flaws in Mortality Data: The Hazards of Ignoring Comorbid Disease. JAMA 1988; 260:2253 -55.

45. Rubenstein LV, Calkins DR, Greenfield S, Jette AM, Meenan RF, Nevins MA, Rubenstein LZ, Wasson JH, Williams ME: Health Status Assessment for Elderly Patients: Report of the Society of General Internal Medicine Task Force on Health Assessment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1988; 37:562-69.

46. Spiegel JS, Shapiro MF, Berman B, Greenfield S: Changing Physician Test Ordering in a University Hospital: An Intervention of Physician Participation, Explicit Criteria, and Feedback. Archives of Internal Medicine 1989; 149:549-53.

47. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Ware JE Jr.: Assessing the Effects of Physician-Patient Interactions on the Outcomes of Chronic Disease. Medical Care 1989; S110-S127.

48. Bennett CL, Garfinkle JR, Greenfield S, Draper D, Rogers W, Mathews WC, and Kanouse DE: The Relation of Hospital Experience to In-hospital Mortality for Patients with AIDS-Related Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia. JAMA 1989; 261(20):2975-79.

49. Greenfield S: The State of Outcome Research: Are We On Target? Editorial, New England Journal of Medicine 1989; 320(17):1142-43.

50. Stewart AL, Greenfield S, Hays RD, et al: Functional Status and Well-being of Patients with Chronic Conditions: Results from The Medical Outcome Study. JAMA 1989; 262(7):907-13.

51. Wells KB, Stewart A, Hays R, Burnam A, Rogers W, Daniels M, Greenfield S, Berry S, Ware JE Jr.: How Poor is the Functioning of Depressed Patients? JAMA 1989; 262(7):915-19.

52. Tarlov AR, Ware JE Jr., Greenfield S, Nelson EC, Perrin E, Zubkoff M: The Medical Outcomes Study: An Application of Methods for Monitoring the Results of Medical Care. JAMA 1989; 262(7):925-30.

53. Wells KB, Hays R, Burnam A, Rogers W, Greenfield S, Ware JE Jr.: Detection of Depressive Disorder for Patients Receiving Prepaid or Fee-for-Service Care. JAMA 1989; 262(23):3298-302.

54. Audet AM, Greenfield S, Field M: Medical Practice Guidelines: Current Activities and Future Directions. Annals of Internal Medicine 1990; 113:709-14.

55. Bennett CL, Gertler P, Guze AP, Garfinkle JB, Kanouse DE, Greenfield S: The Relation Between Resource Use and In-Hospital Mortality for Patients with Aids-Related PCP, Arch. Internal Medicine. Archives of Internal Medicine 1990; 150:1447-52.
56. Bennett CL, Greenfield S, Aronow HU, et al: Patterns of Treatment Related to Age of Men with Localized Prostate Cancer. Cancer 1991; 67:2641-44.

57. Cleary PD, Greenfield S, Mulley AG, Pauker SG, Schroeder SA, Wexler L et al. Variations in Length of Stay and Outcomes for Six Medical and Surgical Conditions in Massachusetts and California. JAMA 1991; 266:73-79.

58. Durand-Zaleski I, Audet AM, Greenfield S, Jolly D. L'evaluation de la Qualite des Soins aux Etas-Unis. Rev. Epidem. et Sante 1991; 39:467-76.

59. Murray JP, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Yano EM: Ambulatory Testing for Capitation and Fee-For-Service Patients in the Same Practice Setting: Relationship to Outcomes. Medical Care 1992; 30(3):252-61.

60. Kravitz RL, Greenfield S, Rogers W, Manning WG, Zubkoff M and Ware JE. Differences in the Mix of Patients Among Medical Specialties and Systems of Care: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA 1992; 267(12):1617-23.

61. Greenfield S, Nelson E, Manning WG, Zubkoff M, Rogers W, et al. Variations in Resource Utilization Among Medical Specialties and Systems of Care: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA 1992; 267(12):1624-30.

62. Greenfield S, Nelson EC. Recent Development and Future Uses of Health Status Measurements in Clinical Practice. Medical Care 1992; 30(5):MS23-MS41.

63. Shapiro MF, Greenfield S. Experience and Outcomes in AIDS, (Editorial). JAMA 1992; 268(19):2698-99.

64. Kravitz, R, Hays R, Sherbourne C, DiMatteo M, Rogers W, Ordway L, Greenfield S. Recall of Recommendations and Adherence to Advice among Patients with Chronic Medical Conditions: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Arch Int Med 1993; 153:1869-78.

65. Greenfield S, Apolone G, McNeil BJ and Cleary PD. The Importance of Co-existent Disease in the Occurrence of Post Operative Complications and One Year Recovery in Patients Undergoing Total Hip Replacement. Medical Care 1993; 31(2).

66. Wells KB, Burnham MA, Kamp P, Rogers WH, Greenfield S. Course of Depression in Patients with Hypertension, Insulin-Dependent Diabetes or Myocardial Infarction; Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Am. J Psychiatry 1993; 150:632-38.

67. Cleary PD, Reilly DT, Greenfield S, Mulley AG, Wexler L, Frankel F, McNeil BJ. Using Patient Reports to Assess Health-Related Quality of Life after Total Hip Replacement. Quality of Life Research 1993; 2(1):3-11.

68. Stewart A, Hays R, Wells K, Rogers W, Spritzer K, Greenfield S. Long-term Functioning and Well-being Outcomes Associated with Physical Activity and Exercise in Patients with Chronic Conditions in the Medical Outcomes Study. J Clin Epi 1994; 47(7):719-30.

69. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Silliman R, Sullivan L, D'Agostino R, Manning WG, Singer D. The Use of Quality of Life Outcomes for Reimbursement, Quality of Care, and Effectiveness in Type II Diabetes. Diabetes Care 1994; 17(1):32-39.

70. Hays RD, Kravitz RL, Mazel RM, Sherbourne CD, DiMatteo MR, Rogers WH, Greenfield S. The Impact of Patient Adherence on Health Outcomes for Chronic Disease Patients in the Medical Outcomes Study. J Behav Med 1994; 17(4):347-61.

71. Javitt JC, Aiello LP, Ferris FL, Chiang Y, Canner JK, Greenfield S. Preventive Eye Care in People with Diabetes is Cost-Saving to the Federal Government. Diabetes Care 1994; 17(8):909-17.

72. Mort EA, Guadagnoli E, Schroeder SA, Greenfield S, Mulley AG, McNeil BJ, Cleary PD. The Influence of Age on Clinical and Patient-Reported Outcomes after Cholecystectomy. Journal of General Internal Medicine 1994; 9:61-65.

73. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. Evaluation of New State-wide Health Reform Initiatives. The Milbank Quarterly (Editorial) 1994; 72(4):695-99.

74. Cullen DJ, Giovanni A, Greenfield S, Guadagnoli E, Cleary P. ASA Physical Status and Age Predict Morbidity after Three Surgical Procedures. Annals of Surgery 1994; 220(1):3-9.

75. Nelson E, Cleary PD, Larson C, Greenfield S. Comparing Outcomes and Charges for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction in Three Community Hospitals: an Approach for Assessing “Value”. International Journal for Quality in Health Care 1995;7(2):95-108.

76. Eckman ME, Greenfield S, Mackey WC, Wong JB, Kaplan SH, Sullivan L, Dukes KA, Pauker SG. Foot Infections In Diabetic Patients: Decision and Cost-effectiveness Analyses. JAMA 1995; 273(9):712-20.

77. Sullivan L, Dukes KA, Harris L, Dittus R, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. A Comparison of Various Methods of Collecting Self-Reported Health Outcomes Data Among Low Income and Minority Patients. Medical Care 1995; 33(4):AS183-AS194.

78. Kravitz RL, Greenfield S. Variations in Resource Utilization Among Medical Specialties and Systems of Care. Annual Review of Public Health 1995; 16:431-45.

79. Greenfield S, Sullivan L, Silliman RA, Dukes K, Kaplan SH. Principles and Practice of Case Mix Adjustment: Applications to End Stage Renal Disease. American Journal of Kidney Disease 1994; 24(2):298-307.

80. Greenfield S, Sullivan L, Dukes KA, Silliman R, D'Agostino R, Kaplan SH. Development and Testing of a New Measure of Case-Mix for Use in Office Practice. Medical Care 1995; Vol 33(4):AS47-AS57.

81. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Gandek B, Rogers WH, Ware JE. Patient and Visit Characteristics Related to Physician’s Participatory Decision-Making Style: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Medical Care 1995;33(12):1176-87.

82. Hiss RG, Greenfield S. Policy Issues And Health Reform Regarding Intensification Of Metabolic Control In NIDDM: Changes in the U.S. Healthcare System that would Facilitate Improved Care for Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus? Results of Forum Discussion. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;124(1 part 2):180-83.

83. Kaplan SH, Gandek B, Greenfield S, Rogers WH, Ware JE. Characteristics of Physicians With Participatory Decision-Making Styles. Annals of Internal Medicine 1996;124:497-504.

84. Greenfield S, Rogers WH, Mangotich M, Carney MF, Tarlov AR. Outcomes of Patients with Hypertension and Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus Treated by Different Systems and Specialties: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA 1995; 274(18):1436-44.

85. Greenfield S. Dividing up the Turf: Generalists versus Subspecialists. Editorial. JGIM 1996; 11(4):245-46.

86. Meigs JB, Singer DE, Dukes KA, Sullivan LM, D’Agostino RA, Nathan DM, Wagner EH, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. Metabolic Control and Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM): The NIDDM Patient Outcomes Research Team. The American Journal of Medicine 1997; 102(39):38-47.

87. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Purdy S. Measuring Health Care Quality: Diabetes. AHCPR Discussion Paper. AHCPR Pub. No. 96-N022.

88. Gross PA, Greenfield S, Zablocki E. Second National Healthcare Conference on Measuring Performance and Implementing Improvement. Clinical Performance and Quality Healthcare 1996; 4(4):203.

89. Hayward RA, Manning WG, Kaplan SH, Wagner EH, Greenfield S. Starting Insulin Therapy in Type II Diabetes: Effectiveness, Complications, and Resource Utilization. JAMA 1997; 278(20):1663-69.

91. Silliman RA, Troyan SL, Guadagnoli E, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. The Impact of Age, Marital Status, and Physician-Patient Interactions on the Care of Older Women with Breast Carcinoma. Cancer 1997; 80(7):1326-34.

92. Picken HA, Greenfield S, Teres D, Hirway P, Landis JN. How Much Does Local Customizing Reduce the Integrity of National Guidelines? Primary Care Physician Agreement with National Asthma Education Program Guidelines. JGIM 1998; 12(10):659-63.

93. Nelson EC, McHorney CA, Manning W, Rogers WH, Zubkoff M, Greenfield S, Ware JE, Jr, Tarlov AR. A Longitudinal Study of Hospitalization Rates for Patients with Chronic Disease: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Health Services Research 1998; 32(6):759-74.

94. Stier DM, Greenfield S, Lubeck DP, Dukes KA, Flanders SC, Henning JM, Weir J, Kaplan SH, “Quantifying Comorbidity in a Disease-Specific Cohort: Adaptation of the Total Illness Burden Index to Prostate Cancer”. Urology 1999; 54(3):424-29.

95. Greenfield, S. Health Profiles and Quality of Life. Academic Radiology 1999; 6(suppl.1):S89-S92.

96. Hofer TP, Hayward RA, Greenfield S, Wagner EH, Kaplan, SH, Manning, WG. The Unreliability of Individual Physician “Report Cards” for Assessing the Costs and Quality of Care of a Chronic Disease. JAMA 1999; 281(22):2098-105.

97. Greenfield S. The Next Generation of Research in Provider Optimization. JGIM 1999; 13(8):516-17.

98. Woolf S, Davidson M, Greenfield S, Bell HS, Ganiats TG, Hagen MD, Palda V, Rizza RA, Spann SJ. The Benefits and Risks of Controlling Blood Glucose Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J. Family Pract. 2000; 49(5): 453-60.

99. Athienites NV, Meyer KB, Fernandes G, Bunnapradist S, Miskulin DC, Simon G, Landa M, Schmid CH, Greenfield S, Levey AS. Comorbidity Assessment in Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Using the Index of Co-existent Disease. Semin Dial 2000; 13(5): 320-6.

100. Kaplan SH, Kravitz RL, Greenfield S. Using Health Status for Treatment Effectiveness and Quality of Care: A Critique of the Use of Health Related Quality of Life Measures in Studies of Effectiveness and Quality. Med. Care 2000; 38(9): II 184-91(Suppl.).

101. Caruso, LB, Silliman RA, Demissie S, Greenfield S, Wagner EH. What Can We Do to Improve Physical Function in Older Persons with Type 2 Diabetes? J. Gerontology 2000; 55A, 7, M372-77.

102. Wilson IB, Dukes KA, Kaplan SH, Hillman B, Greenfield S. Patient’s Role in the Use of Diagnostic Radiology for Common Office Practice Complaints. Archives of Internal Medicine 2001; 161:256-63.

103. Belfiglio M, De Berardis G, Franciosi M, Cavaliere D, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, et al. The Relationship Between Physicians' Self-Reported Target Fasting Blood Glucose Levels and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001; 24(3):423-29.

104. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Connolly GA, Barlow S, Grand R. Methodologic Issues in the Conduct and Interpretation of Pediatric Effectiveness Research. Amb Peds 2001; 1(1):63-70.

105. Gross PA, Greenfield S, Cretin S, Ferguson J, Grimshaw J, Grol R et al. Optimal Methods for Guideline Implementation: Conclusions from Leeds Castle Meeting. Medical Care 2001; 39(8): II 85-92 (Suppl 2).

106. Fleming B, Greenfield S, Engelgau M, Pogach L, Clauser S, Parrott M. The Diabetes Quality Improvement Project: Moving Science into Health Policy to Gain an Edge on the Diabetes Epidemic. Diabetes Care 2001; 24(10):1815-20.

107. Franciosi M, Pelligrini F, De Berardis G, Belfiglio M, Cavaliere D, Di Nardo B et al. The Impact of Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring on Metabolic Control and Quality of Life in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: An Urgent Need for Better Educational Strategies. Diabetes Care 2001; 24:1870-77.

108. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Kahn R, Ninomiya J, Griffith J. Profiling Care Provided by Different Groups of Physicians: Effects of Patient Case-Mix (Bias) and Physician-Level Clustering on Quality Assessment Results. Ann Int Med. 2002;136:111-21.

109. De Berardis G, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Pellegrini F, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A. Erectile Dysfunction and Quality of Life in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Serious Problem Too Often Overlooked. Diabetes Care 2002;25:284-91.

110. Porath A, Arbelle JE, Grossman E, Cilutz H, Cohen E, Greenfield S, Garty M, A comparison of management and short-term outcomes of acute myocardial infarction patients admitted to coronary care units and medical wards: the importance of case mix. Eur J Intern Med. 2002 Dec;13(8):507-513.

111. Greenfield S. Defining and Understanding “Co-Management” Care. Editorial. Diabetes Care 2002;25(9): 1657-58.

112. Pelligrini F, Belfiglio M, De Berardis G, Franciosi M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Corrado D, D’Ettoree A, Nicolucci A. Role of Organizational Factors in Poor Blood Pressure Control in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. The QuED Study Group – Quality of Care and Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. Arch Int Med 2003;163:473-80.

113. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi M, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A. Identifying Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with a Higher Likelihood of Erectile Dysfunction: The Role of the Interaction Between Clinical and Psychological Factors; Journal of Urology 2003;169(4); 1422-1428

114. Greenfield S. Are We Ready to Act on Racial Concordance? Journal of Public Health Policy 2004:24(3/4):324-27.

115. De Berardis G, Pelligrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi M, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A. The QuED Study Group - Quality of Care and Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:398-406.

116. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. The Patient’s Role in Reducing Disparities. Ann Int Med, Editorial. 2004:141(3):222-223.

117. Schneider J, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Wenjun L, Wilson I. Better physician-patient relationships are associated with higher reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. J Gen Intern Med. 2004 Nov;19(11):1096-103.

118. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. Creating a Culture of Quality: The Remarkable Transformation of the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Ann Int Med. 2004:141(4);316-318.

119. Franciosi M, Pellegrini F, De Berardis, Bel glio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A. Correlates of satisfaction for the relationship with their physician in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004 Dec;66(3):277-86.

120. DeBerardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Physician attitudes toward foot care education and foot examination and their correlation with patient practice. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):286-7.

121. Franciosi M, Pellegrini F, De Berardis G, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini MC, Nicolucci A; Quality of Care and Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes (QuED) Study Group. Impact of physicians’ beliefs and practices on cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal assessment. Am Heart J. 2005 Jan;149(1):104-11.

122. Linzer M, Pierce C, Lincoln E, Miller DR, Payne SM, Clark JA, Skinner KM, Greenfield S, Kaplan S, McHorney CA, Lee A, Kazis LE; Preliminary validation of a patient-based self-assessment measure of severity of illness in type 2 diabetes: results from the pilot phase of the Veterans health Study. J Ambul Care Manage. 2005 Apr-Jun;28(2):167-76.

123. Franciosi M, Pellegrini F, De Berardis G, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini MC, Nicolucci A; Self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin-treated diabetic patients: a longitudinal evaluation of its impact on metabolic control. Diabetic Medicine.2005 Jul 22(7): 900-6.

124. Parsons SK, Shih MC, Mayer DK, Barlow SE, Supran SE, Levy SL, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH; Preliminary psychometric evaluation of the Child Health Ratings Inventory (CHRIs) and Disease-Specific Impairment Inventory-Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (DSII-HSCT) in parents and children. Quality of Life Research. 2005 Jan 14:1613-1625.

125. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MCE, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A. Are Type 2 diabetic patients offered adequate foot care? The role of physician and patient characteristics. J Diabetes Complications 2005; 19(6):319-327.

126. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MCE, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A. Longitudinal assessment of quality of life in patients with Type 2 diabetes and self-reported erectile dysfunction. Diabetes Care 2005; 28(11):2637-2643.

127. Nicolucci A, Greenfield S, Mattke S; Selecting indicators for the quality of care at the health systems level in OECD countries. International Journal for Quality in Health Care. 18(1) 2006:26-30.

128. Mukamel D, Glance LG, Weimer DL, Pearson T, Massey T, Gold J, Greenfield S, Jackson, Mushlin AI. Racial Variations in the Choice of On-Pump versus Off-Pump CABG surgery. J Health Serv Res Policy 2007; 12(1):31-35.

129. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MCE, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A, Clinical and psychological predictors of incidence of self-reported erectile dysfunction in patients with Type 2 diabetes, J Urol 2007; 177: 252-257.

130. Greenfield S, Kravitz R, Duan N, Kaplan SH, Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects: Implications for Guidelines, Payment and Quality Assessment, The American Journal of Medicine 2007; 120(4A):S3-S9.

131. Greenfield S, Kravitz RL; Heterogeneity of Treatment Effects: Subgroup Analysis. Institute of Medicine Report on the Learning Healthcare Environment, Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2007; 4:113-123

132. Litwin M, Greenfield S, Elkin E, Lubeck D, Broering J, Kaplan S, Assessment of prognosis with the Total Illness Burden Index for Prostate Cancer (TIBI-CaP): validation of an instrument to aid clinicians in treatment choice. Cancer. 2007; 109(9):1777-1783.

133. Werner R, Greenfield S, et al., Measuring Quality of Care in Patients with Multiple Clinical Conditions: Summary of a conference conducted by the Society of General Internal Medicine. J Gen Intern Med. 2007; 22(8):1206-11.

134. Greenfield S, Editorial - Evaluating Quality Improvement, Pediatrics, Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, 2007; 120:1131-1132.

135. Ngo-Metzger Q, Sorkin DH, Phillips RS, Greenfield S, et al., Providing High-Quality Care for Limited English Proficient Patients: The Importance of Language Concordance and Interpreter Use. J Gen Intern Med 2007; 22(Suppl 2):324-30.

136. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MCE, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valenti M, Nicolucci A and the QuED Study Group, Quality of diabetes care predicts the development of cardiovascular events: results of the QuED study, Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 2008; 18(1):57-65

137. Lane JS, Magno CP, Lane KT, Chan T, Hoyt DB, Greenfield S. Nutrition impacts the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the United States. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2008; 48(4):897-904.
138. Lane K, Kempf A, Magno C, Lane J, Butler J, Hsiang D, Greenfield S, Regional Differences in the use of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Melanoma: A Potential Quality Measure 2008. Am Surg. 2008; 74(10):981-4.

139. Kaplan SH, Griffith J, Price L, Pawlson G, Greenfield S. Improving the Reliability of Physician Performance Assessment: Identifying the ‘Physician Effect’ on Quality and Creating Composite Measures. Medical Care, 2009; 47(4): 378-87.

140. Shulman L, Jacobs L, Green?eld S, Jones B, McCabe M, Syrjala K, Diller L, Shapiro C, Marcus A, Campbell M, Santacroce S, Kagawa-Singer M, Ganz P. Cancer Care and Cancer Survivorship Care in the United States: Will We Be Able to Care for These Patients in the Future? JOP, 2009: 5(3):119-123
141. Ong M, Mangione C, Zhou Q, Auerbach A, Chun A, Davidson B, Ganiats T, Greenfield S, Gropper M, Malik S, Romano P, Rosenthal J, Escarce J, Looking Forward, Looking Back: Assessing Variations in Hospital Resource Use and Outcomes for Elderly Patients with Heart Failure. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes, 2009; 2(11): 548-557

142. Sox H, Greenfield S, Editorial, Report IOM Priorities Committee: Comparative Effectiveness Research: A Report From the Institute of Medicine, Ann Intern Med, 2009; 151(8): 203-205.

143. Nekhkyudov L, Greenfield S, Cancer Survivorship for the General Internist: Have We Made Progress?, J Gen Intern Med. 2009; 11 (Suppl 2): 381-382

144. Greenfield S, Billimek J, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, De Berardis G, Nicolucci A, Kaplan SH. Comorbidity Affects the Relationship Between Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Diabetes: A Cohort Study: Annals of Internal Medicine, 2009;151(12): 854-860

145. Weitzman S, Greenfield S, Billimek J, Tabenkin H, Schvartzman P, Yehiel E, Tandeter H, Eilat -Tsanani S, Kaplan SH. Improving combined diabetes outcomes by adding a simple patient intervention to physician feedback: A cluster randomized trial. Israeli Medical Association Journal 2010; 11(12): 719-724

146. Kaplan SH, Billimek J, Sorkin D, Ngo-Metzger Q, Greenfield S. Who can respond to treatment? Identifying patient characteristics related to heterogeneity of treatment effects. Medical Care 2010; 48(6): S9-S16

147. Sox H, Greenfield S, Quality of Care: How Good Is Good Enough? JAMA, 2010; 303(23): 2403-2404.

148. Daskivich T, Sadetsky N, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Litwin M, Less Is More: Severity of Comorbidity and Non-Prostate Cancer Mortality in Men With Early-Stage Prostate Cancer. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010; 170(15): 1396-1397

149. Holmboe E, Weng W, Arnold G, Kaplan SH, Normand S, Greenfield S, Hood S, Lipner R, The Comprehensive Care Project: Physician performance measuring in ambulatory practice. Health Services Research 2010; 45(9): 1-22
150. O’Connor PJ, Bodkin N, Fradkin J, Glasgow R, Greenfield S, et al., Diabetes Performance Measures: Current Status and Future Directions. Diabetes Care 2011 34:1651-1659 34:1651-1659

151. Daskivich T, Chamie K, Kwan L, Labo J, Dash A, Greenfield S, Litwin M, Comorbidity and Competing Risks for Mortality in Men with Prostate Cancer. Cancer 2011. 117(20): 4642-4650

152. Sorkin D, Ngo-Metzger Q, Billimek J, August K, Greenfield S, Kaplan S, Underdiagnosed and undertreated depression among racially/ethnically diverse patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011 Mar;34(3):598-600.

153. Chamie K, Daskivich T, Kwan K, Labo J, Dash A, Greenfield S, Litwin S, Comorbidities, Treatment and Ensuing Survival in Men with Prostate Cancer.
J Gen Intern Med. 2011 Sep 21.

154. Ngo-Metzger Q, Sorkin DH, Billimek J, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. The Effects of Financial Pressures on Adherence and Glucose Control Among Racial/Ethnically Diverse Patients with Diabetes. J Gen Intern Med. 2011 Oct 18.

155. Greenfield S, Kaplan S. Building Useful Evidence: Changing the Clinical Research Paradigm to Account for Comparative Effectiveness Research. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research. 2012 May

156. Greenfield S, Platt R Can Observational Studies Approximate RCTs? (Editorial). Value In Health In Press

157. Kaplan SH, Kessler M, Greenfield S. The Effectiveness of Physician Level Interventions to Improve Quality of Care; Pay For Performance, Assessment and Feedback and Specialty Certification. A Systematic Review. Under Review

158. Sorkin DH, August KJ, Billimek J, Ngo-Metzger Q, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Mental Health Symptoms are More Strongly Associated with Diabetes Symptom Burden that Glucose Control. In Preparation.

159. Nguyen H, Sorkin DH, Billimek J, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Ngo-Metzger, Q, Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Non-Hispanic White, Mexican and Vietnamese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. In Preparation.

160. Sorkin D, August K, Billimek J, Strawhecker, S, Ngo-Metzger Q, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Depression and Adherence to Diabetes Treatment Regimes: Importance of Participation in Decision Making. Under Review

161. Malik S, Billimek J, Greenfield S, Sorkin D, Ngo-Metzger Q, Kaplan SH, Patient Complexity and Risk Factor Conrtol Among Mulit-Morbid Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the R2D2C2 Study. Under Review

162. Kaplan SH, Ngo-Metzger Q, Sorkin DH, Billimek J, Greenfield S. Reducing Racial Disparities in Diabetes: The Coached Care (R2D2C2) Project. Under Review

163. Malik S, Erande A, Astanch Am Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Amin A, Kim JK, Patel P, Does Underuse of Invasive Procedures Contribute to Gender Differences in In-Hospital Mortality for Myocardial Infarction? Under Review
Member, Institute of Medicine
Member, Society of General Internal Medicine
Other Experience Intern, Junior Assistant Resident in Medicine
V and VI Medical Services (Boston University); Boston Hospital - Boston, MA 1964—1966

Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, Epidemiology Program
National Communicable Disease Center (now Center for Disease Control) - Syracuse, NY 1966—1968

Senior Assistant Resident, Medicine
Beth Israel Hospital, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Harvard Medical School - Boston, MA 1969—1971

Training Fellow in Infectious Disease
Beth Israel Hospital, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Harvard Medical School - Boston, MA 1969—1971

Chief Resident in Medicine
Beth Israel Hospital - Boston, Ma 1971—1972

Instructor in Medicine
Harvard Medical School - Boston, MA 1971—1972

Medical Director
National Study of Medical Outcomes 1984—1996

RAND/UCLA Center for Health Policy Study - Los Angeles, CA 1982—1988

Professor of Medicine and Public Health
UCLA School of Medicine and UCLA School of Public Health - Los Angeles, CA 1984—1988

Professor of Medicine and Chief, Division of Health Services Research
Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine - Boston, MA 1988—2003

Senior Scientist
The Health Institute, New England Medical Center Hospitals - Boston, MA 1988—1993

Professor of Medicine and Community Health
Departments of Community Health and Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine - Boston, MA 1999—2003

Adjunct Professor
Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health - Boston, MA 1988—2004

Donald Bren Professor of Medicine
University of California - Irvine, CA 2003—Now

Research Center Health Policy Research Institute
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Last updated 08/06/2012