Sheldon Greenfield

picture of Sheldon  Greenfield

Executive Co-Director, Health Policy Research Institute
School of Medicine
Donald Bren Professor
School of Medicine
Professor of Medicine
School of Medicine

B.A., Harvard College, Massachusetts, 1960, Biochemistry
M.D., University of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1964, College of Medicine

Phone: (949) 824-5430, 7286
Fax: (949) 824-3388

University of California, Irvine
100 Theory, Suite 110
Mail Code: 5800
Irvine, CA 92697
Academic Distinctions
Chairman, Health Care Technology Study Section, National Center for Health Services Research, and Health Care Technology, 1988-1992.

Chair, IOM Committee to design the National Healthcare Disparities Report to Congress, 2001–2002.

Chair, Institute of Medicine Committee, From Cancer Patient to Cancer Survivor; Lost in Transition, 2004 – 2008.

Co-Chair, Institute of Medicine (IOM), Committee on Recommendations on National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research, 2009

Chair, Committee on Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines, IOM, 2009 – Present

Senior Co-Editor, Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 2011 – 2018
1. Greenfield S, Feldman HA. Familial Carriers and Meningococcal Meningitis. N Engl J Med. 1967 Sep;277(10):497-502.

2. Greenfield S, Feingold DS. The Synergistic Action of the Sulfonamides and Polymyxins against Serratia Marcescens. J Infect Dis. 1970 May;121(5):555-8. (PMID: 4316000)

3. Greenfield S, Sheehe PR, Feldman HA. Meningococcal Carriage in a Population of "Normal" Families. J Infect Dis. 1971 Jan;123(1):67-73. (PMID: 5100979)

4. Greenfield S, Peter G, Howie VM, Ploussard JH, Smith DH. Acquisition of Type-Specific Antibodies to Hemophilus Influenzae type b. J Pediatr. 1972 Feb;80(2):204-8. (PMID: 4550449)

5. Greenfield S, Teres D, Bushnell LS, Hedley-Whyte J, Feingold DS. Prevention of Gram Negative Bacillary Pneumonia Using Aerosol Polymyxin as Prophylaxis, I. Effect on the Colonization of Seriously Ill Patients. J Clin Invest. 1973 Nov;52(11):2935-40. (PMID: 4356004)

6. Greenfield S, Bragg FE, McCraith DL, Blackburn J. Upper-Respiratory Tract Complaint Protocol for Physician Extenders. J Fam Pract. 1974 Feb; 2(1):13-8. (PMID: 47378)

7. Greenfield S, Freidland G, Scifers S, Rhodes A, Black WL, Komaroff AL. Protocol Management of Dysuria, Frequency, and Vaginal Discharge. Ann Intern Med. 1974 Oct;81(4):452-7. (PMID: 4415356)

8. Greenfield S, Anderson H, Winickoff R, Morgan A, Komaroff AL. Nurse-protocol management of low back pain. Outcomes, patient satisfaction and efficiency of primary care. West J Med. 1975 Nov;123(5):350-9. (PMID: 128907)

9. Greenfield S, Lewis CE, Kaplan SH, Davidson MB. Peer Review by Criteria Mapping: Criteria for Diabetes Mellitus. The Use of Decision-Making in Chart Audit. Ann Intern Med. 1975 Dec; 83(6):761-70. (PMID: 1200522)

10. Greenfield S, Komaroff AL, Anderson H. A Headache Protocol for Nurses: Effectiveness and Efficiency. Arch Intern Med. 1976 Oct;136(10):1111-6. (PMID: 971011)

11. Davies AR, Lelah T, Solomon NE, Harris LJ, Brook RH, Greenfield S, Ware JE Jr, Avery CH. Quality of Medical Care Assessment Using Outcome Measures: Eight Disease-Specific Applications. RAND Corportation. 1976;R-2021/2-HEW.

12. Brook RH, Davies-Avery A, Greenfield S, Harris LJ, Lelah T, Solomon NE, Ware JE Jr. Assessing the Quality of Medical Care Using Outcome Measures: An Overview of the Method. Med Care. 1977 Sep;15(9 Suppl):S1-S165. (PMID: 895236)

13. Greenfield S, Nadler MA, Morgan MT, Shine KI. The Clinical Investigation and Management of Chest Pain in an Emergency Department: Quality Assessment by Criteria Mapping. Med Care. 1977 Nov;15(11):898-905. (PMID: 926871)

14. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. Criteria Mapping: Using Logic in Evaluation of Processes of Care. QRB Qual Rev Bull. 1978 Jan;4(1):3-7. (PMID: 103031)

15. Greenfield S, Solomon NE, Brook RH, Avery AD. Development of Outcome Criteria and Standards to Assess the Quality of Care for Patients with Osteoarthrosis. J Chronic Dis. 1978;31(6-7):375-88. (PMID: 711830)

16. Greenfield S, Komaroff AL, Pass TM, Anderson H, Nessim S. Efficiency and Cost of Primary Care by Nurses and Physician Assistants. N Engl J Med. 1978 Feb 9; 298(6):305-9. (PMID: 23495)

17. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Goldberg GA, Nadler MA, Deigh-Hewertson RA. Physician Preference for Criteria Mapping in Medical Care Evaluation. J Fam Pract. 1978 May;6(5):1079-86. (PMID: 660112)

18. Greenfield S, Jordan MC. The Clinical Investigation of Lymphadenopathy in Primary Care Practice. JAMA. 1978 Sep 22;240(13):1388-93. (PMID: 355675)

19. Greenfield S. Clinical Algorithms. (Editorial) West J Med. 1978 Sep;129(3):230-1. (PMID: 18748287)

20. Shoemaker WC, Hopkins JA, Greenfield S, Chang PC, Umof P, Shabot MM, Spenler CW, State D. Resuscitation Algorithm for Management of Acute Emergencies. JACEP. 1978 Oct;7(10):361-7. (PMID: 45673)

21. Worthman LG, Greenfield S, Cretin S. Quality Assessment in Emergency Medical Systems: The Criteria Mapping Method. Emerg Med Serv.1979 Nov-Dec;8(6):94-7. (PMID: 10244556)

22. Hopkins JA, Shoemaker WC, Greenfield S, Chang PC, McAuliffe T, Sproat RW. Comparison of the Treatment of Surgical Emergencies with and without an Algorithm. Arch Surg. 1980;115(6):745-50.

23. Linn LS, Ware JE Jr., Greenfield S. Factor Associated with Relief from Chest Pain Following Emergency Care. Med Care. 1980 Jun;18(6):624-34. (PMID: 7401711)

24. Elashoff JD, Greenfield S, Henderson D, Sturdevant RAL. Physician Recommendations of Elective Surgery for Duodenal Ulcer Patients: A Comparison of Surgeons and Medical Specialists. Gastroenterology. 1980;79(4):750-3.

25. Rubenstein LA, Greenfield S. The baseline ECG in the evaluation of acute cardiac complaints. JAMA. 1980 Dec 5;244(22):2536-9. (PMID: 7431589)

26. Greenfield S, Cretin S, Worthman LG, Dorey FJ, Soloman NE, Goldberg GA. Comparison of a Criteria Map to a Criteria List in Quality of Care Assessment: The Relation of Each to Outcome. Med Care. 1981;19(3):255-72. (PMID: 7218892)

27. Linn LS, Greenfield S. Patient Suffering and Patient Satisfaction Among the Chronically Ill. Med Care. 1982;20(4):425-31. (PMID: 7078298)

28. Greenfield S, Cretin S, Wortham LG, Dorey F. The use of an ROC Curve to Express Quality of Care Results. Med Decis Making.1982;2(1):23-31. (PMID: 7169930)

29. Guzy PM, Pearce ML, Greenfield S. The Survival Benefits of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Paramedic Served Metropolitan Area. Am J Public Health. 1983 July;73(7):766-9. (PMID: 6859360)

30. Greenfield S, Linn LS, Purtill NA, Young RT. Reverse Consultations: The Profiles of Patients Referred From Subspecialists to Generalists. J Chronic Dis. 1983;36(12):883-9. (PMID: 6655033)

31. Gerbert B, Greenfield S, Stulbarg M, Kemeny M, Gullion DS. Clinical Algorithms for Medical Care: Development by Practicing Physicians. Mobius. 1983;3(4):10-6.

32. Hopkins JA, Shoemaker WC, Chang PC, Schluchter M, Greenfield S: Clinical Trial of An Emergency Resuscitation Algorithm. Crit Care Med.1983 Aug;11(8):621-9. (PMID: 6347521)

33. Shapiro MF, Lehman AS, Greenfield S. Biases in the laboratory diagnosis of depression in medical practice. Arch Intern Med. 1983;143(11):2085-8. (PMID: 6639229)

34. Shapiro MF, Hatch RL, Greenfield S. Cost containment and labor-intensive tests. The case of the leukocyte differential count. JAMA. 1984 Jul 13;252(2):231-4. (PMID: 6727022)

35. Kahn KL, Greenfield S: The Efficacy of Endoscopy in the Evaluation of Dyspepsia. Ann Intern Med. 1985;102(2):266-9.

36. Greenfield S, Kaplan S, Ware JE Jr. Expanding Patient Involvement in Care: Effects on Patients Outcome. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Apr;102(4):520-8. (PMID: 3977198)

37. Rubenstein LV, Ward NC, Greenfield S. In Pursuit of the Abnormal Serum Alkaline Phosphatase: A Clinical Dilemma. J Gen Intern Med. 1986 Jan-Feb;1(1):38-43. (PMID: 3021939)

38. Hubbell FA, Greenfield S, Tyler JL, Chetty K, Wyle FA. The Impact of Routine Admission Chest X-Ray on Patient Care. N Engl J Med. 1985 Jan 24;312(4):209-13. (PMID: 3965947)

39. Kahn KL, Greenfield S. The efficacy of endoscopy in the evaluation of dyspepsia. A review of the literature and development of a sound strategy. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1986 Jun;8(3 Pt 2):346-58. (PMID: 3531307)

40. Shapiro MF, Greenfield S. The complete blood count and leukocyte differential count. An approach to their rational application. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Jan;106(1):65-74. (PMID: 3538968)

41. Greenfield S, Blanco DM, Elashoff RM, Ganz PA. Patterns of care related to age of breast cancer patients. JAMA. 1987 May 22-29;257(20):2766-70. (PMID: 3573271)

42. Gerbert B, Stone G, Stulbarg M, Gullion DS, Greenfield S. Agreement among physician assessment methods. Searching for the truth among fallible methods. Med Care. 1988 Jun;26(6):519-35. (PMID: 3379984)

43. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Ware JE Jr., Yano EM, Frank HJ. Patients’ participation in medical care: effects on blood sugar control and quality of life in diabetes. J Gen Intern Med. 1988 Sep-Oct;3(5):448-57. (PMID: 3049968)

44. Greenfield S, Aronow HU, Elashoff RM, Watanabe D. Flaws in mortality data: The hazards of ignoring comorbid disease. JAMA. 1988 Oct 21;260(15):2253-5. (PMID: 3172404)

45. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Ware JE Jr. Assessing the effects of physician-patient interactions on the outcomes of chronic disease. Med Care. 1989 Mar;27(3 Suppl):S110-S127. (PMID: 2646486)

46. Spiegel JS, Shapiro MF, Berman B, Greenfield S. Changing physician test ordering in a university hospital. An intervention of physician participation, explicit criteria, and feedback. Arch Intern Med. 1989 Mar;149(3):549-53. (PMID: 2919932)

47. Greenfield S. The state of outcome research: are we on target? [Editorial]. N Engl J Med.1989 Apr 27;320(17):1142-3. (PMID: 2710176)

48. Bennett CL, Garfinkle JB, Greenfield S, Draper D, Rogers W, Mathews C, Kanouse DE. The relation between hospital experience and in-hospital mortality for patients with AIDS-related PCP. JAMA. 1989 May 26;261(20):2975-9. (PMID: 2785607)

49. Rubenstein LV, Calkins DR, Greenfield S, Jette AM, Meenan RF, Nevins MA, Rubenstein LZ, Wasson JH, Williams ME. Health Status Assessment for elderly patients. Report of the Society of General Internal Medicine Task Force on Health Assessment. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1989 Jun;37(6):562-9. (PMID: 2654260)

50. Stewart AL, Greenfield S, Hays RD, Wells K, Rogers WH, Berry SD, McGlynn EA, Ware JE Jr. Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions. Results from the Medical Outcome Study. JAMA. 1989 Aug 18;262(7):907-13. (PMID: 2754790)

51. Wells KB, Stewart A, Hays RD, Burnam MA, Rogers W, Daniels M, Berry S, Greenfield S, Ware JE Jr. The functioning and well-being of depressed patients. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA. 1989 Aug 18;262(7):914-9. (PMID: 2754791)

52. Tarlov AR, Ware JE Jr., Greenfield S, Nelson EC, Perrin E, Zubkoff M. The Medical Outcomes Study. An application of methods for monitoring the results of medical care. JAMA. 1989 Aug;262(7):925-30. (PMID: 2754793)

53. Wells KB, Hays R, Burnam A, Rogers W, Greenfield S, Ware JE Jr. Detection of depressive disorder for patients receiving prepaid or fee-for-service care. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. JAMA. 1989 Dec 15;262(23):3298-302. (PMID: 2585674)

54. Audet AM, Greenfield S, Field M. Medical practice guidelines: current activities and future directions. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Nov 1;113(9):709-14. (PMID: 2221652)

55. Bennett CL, Gertler P, Guze AP, Garfinkle JB, Kanouse DE, Greenfield S. The relation between resource use and in-hospital mortality for patients with acquired immunodeficiency symdrome-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Arch Intern Med. 1990 Jul;150(7):1447-52. (PMID: 2369243)

56. Bennett CL, Greenfield S, Aronow HU, Ganz P, Vogelzang NJ, Elashoff RM. Patterns of Care Related to Age of Men with Prostate Cancer. Cancer. 1991;67(10):2633-41.

57. Cleary PD, Greenfield S, Mulley AG, Pauker SG, Schroeder SA, Wexler L, McNeil BJ. Variations in length of stay and outcomes for six medical and surgical conditions in Massachusetts and California. JAMA. 1991 Jul 3;266(1):73-9. (PMID: 2046132)

58. Durand-Zaleski I, Audet AM, Greenfield S, Jolly D. L'evaluation de la qualité des Soins aux Etas-Unis. Rev d’Epidém et San Pub. 1991;39:467-76.

59. Murray JP, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Yano EM. Ambulatory testing for capitation and fee-for-service patients in the same practice setting: relationship to outcomes. Med Care. 1992 Mar;30(3):252-61. (PMID: 1538613)

60. Kravitz RL, Greenfield S, Rogers W, Manning WG Jr, Zubkoff M, Nelson EC, Tarlov AR, Ware JE Jr. Differences in the mix of patients among medical specialties and systems of care. Results from the medical outcomes study. JAMA. 1992 Mar 25;267(12):1617-23. (PMID: 1542171)

61. Greenfield S, Nelson EC, Zubkoff M, Manning W, Rogers W, Kravitz RL, Keller A, Tarlov AR, Ware JE Jr. Variations in resource utilization among medical specialties and systems of care. Results from the medical outcomes study. JAMA. 1992 Mar 25;267(12):1624-30. (PMID: 1542172)

62. Greenfield S, Nelson EC. Recent developments and future issues in the use of health status assessment measure in clinical settings. Med Care. 1992 May;30(5 Suppl):MS23-41. (PMID: 1583935)

63. Shapiro MF, Greenfield S. Experience and Outcomes in AIDS. JAMA. 1992;268(19):2698-9.

64. Kravitz RL, Hays RD, Sherbourne CD, DiMatteo MR, Rogers WH, Ordway L, Greenfield S. Recall of recommendations and adherence to advice among patients with chronic medical conditions.. Arch Int Med. 1993 Aug 23;153(16):1869-78. (PMID: 8250648)

65. Greenfield S, Apolone G, McNeil BJ, Cleary PD. The importance of co-existent disease in the occurrence of postoperative complications and one-year recovery in patients undergoing total hip replacement. Comorbidity and outcomes after hip replacement. Med Care. 1993 Feb;31(2):141-154. (PMID: 8433577)

66. Wells KB, Burnham MA, Kamp P, Rogers WH, Greenfield S. Course of depression in patients with hypertension, insulin-dependent diabetes or myocardial infarction; results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150:632-38.

67. Cleary PD, Reilly DT, Greenfield S, Mulley AG, Wexler L, Frankel F, McNeil BJ. Using patient reports to assess health-related quality of life after total hip replacement. Qual Life Res. 1993 Feb;2(1):3-11. (PMID: 8490615)

68. Stewart A, Hays RD, Wells KB, Rogers WH, Spritzer KL, Greenfield S. Long-term functioning and well-being outcomes associated with physical activity and exercise in patients with chronic conditions in the Medical Outcomes Study. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994 Jul;47(7):719-30. (PMID: 7722585)

69. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Silliman R, Sullivan L, Manning WG, D’Agostino R, Singer DE, Nathan DM. The uses of outcomes research for medical effectiveness, quality of care, and reimbursement in type II diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1994 Jun;17 Suppl 1:32-9. (PMID:8088221)

70. Hays RD, Kravitz RL, Mazel RM, Sherbourne CD, DiMatteo MR, Rogers WH, Greenfield S. The impact of patient adherence on health outcomes for patients with chronic disease in the Medical Outcomes Study. J Behav Med. 1994 Aug;17(4):347-60. (PMID: 7966257)

71. Javitt JC, Aiello LP, Ferris FL, Chiang Y, Canner JK, Greenfield S. Preventive eye care in people with diabetes is cost-saving to the federal government. Implications for health-care reform. Diabetes Care. 1994 Aug;17(8):909-17. (PMID: 7956643)

72. Mort EA, Guadagnoli E, Schroeder SA, Greenfield S, Mulley AG, McNeil BJ, Cleary PD. The influence of age on clinical and patient-reported outcomes after cholecystectomy. J Gen Intern Med. 1994 Feb;9(2):61-5. (PMID: 8164078)

73. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. Evaluation of new statewide health reform initiatives. Milbank Q. 1994;72(4):695-9. (PMID: 7997224)

74. Cullen DJ, Apolone G, Greenfield S, Guadagnoli E, Cleary P. ASA Physical Status and age predict morbidity after three surgical procedures. Ann Surg. 1994 Jul; 220(1):3-9. (PMID: 8024356)

75. Nelson EC, Greenfield S, Hays RD, Larson C, Leopold B, Batalden PB. Comparing outcomes and charges for patients with acute myocardial infarction in three community hospitals: an approach for assessing “value”. Int J Qual Health Care. 1995 Jun;7(2):95-108. (PMID: 7655815)

76. Eckman ME, Greenfield S, Mackey WC, Wong JB, Kaplan SH, Sullivan L, Dukes KA, Pauker SG. Foot infections in diabetic patients. Decisions and cost-effectiveness analyses. JAMA. 1995 Mar 1; 273(9):712-20. (PMID: 7853629)

77. Sullivan L, Dukes KA, Harris L, Dittus R, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. A comparison of various methods of collecting self-reported health outcomes data among low income and minority patients. Med Care. 1995 Apr;33(4 Suppl):AS183-94. (PMID: 7723446)

78. Kravitz RL, Greenfield S. Variations in resource utilization among medical specialties and systems of care. Annu Rev Public Health. 1995;16:431-5. (PMID: 7639881)

79. Greenfield S, Sullivan L, Silliman RA, Dukes K, Kaplan SH. Principles and practice of case mix-adjustment: applications to end-stage rental disease. Am J Kidney Dis. 1994 Aug; 24(2):298-307. (PMID: 8048437)

80. Greenfield S, Sullivan L, Dukes KA, Silliman R, D'Agostino R, Kaplan SH. Development and testing of a new measure of case mix for use in office practice. Med Care. 1995 Apr;33(4 Suppl):AS47-55. (PMID: 7723461)

81. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Gandek B, Rogers WH, Ware JE. Patient and visit characteristics related to physicians’ participatory decision-making style. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Med Care. 1995 Dec;33(12):1176-87. (PMID: 7500658)

82. Hiss RG, Greenfield S. Forum Three: Changes in the U.S. health care system that would facilitate improved care for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Jan 1;124(1 Pt 2):180-3. (PMID: 8554216)

83. Kaplan SH, Gandek B, Greenfield S, Rogers WH, Ware JE Jr. Characteristics of physicians with participatory decision-making styles. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Mar 1;124(5):497-504. (PMID: 8602709)

84. Greenfield S, Rogers WH, Mangotich M, Carney MF, Tarlov AR. Outcomes of patients with hypertension and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus treated by different systems and specialties. Results from the medical outcomes study. JAMA. 1995 Nov 8;274(18):1436-44. (PMID: 7474189)

85. Greenfield S. Dividing up the turf: Generalists versus specialists. J Gen Intern Med. 1996 Apr;11(4):245-6. (PMID: 8744884)

86. Meigs JB, Singer DE, Dukes KA, Sullivan LM, D’Agostino RA, Nathan DM, Wagner EH, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. Metabolic control and prevalent cardiovascular disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM): The NIDDM Patient Outcomes Research Team. Am J Med. 1997 Jan;102(1):38-47. (PMID: 9209199)

87. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Purdy S. Measuring Health Care Quality: Diabetes. AHCPR Discussion Paper. AHCPR. Pub. No. 96-N022.

88. Gross PA, Greenfield S, Zablocki E. Second National Healthcare Conference on Measuring Performance and Implementing Improvement: a Practical Approach, held June 34, 1996, in Washington DC. Clin Perform Qual Health Care. 1996 Oct-Dec;4(4):203-29. (PMID: 10162154)

89. Hayward RA, Manning WG, Kaplan SH, Wagner EH, Greenfield S. Starting insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: effectiveness, complications, and resource utilization. JAMA. 1997 Nov 26;278(20):1663-69. (PMID: 9388085)

90. Silliman RA, Troyan SL, Guadagnoli E, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. The impact of age, marital status, and physician-patient interactions on the care of older women with breast carcinoma. Cancer. 1997 Oct; 80(7):1326-34. (PMID: 9317187)

91. Picken HA, Greenfield S, Teres D, Hirway P, Landis JN. Effect of local standards on the implementation of national guidelines for asthma: primary care agreement with national asthma guidelines. J Gen Intern Med. 1998 Oct;13(10):659-63. (PMID: 9798811)

92. Nelson EC, McHorney CA, Manning WG Jr, Rogers WH, Zubkoff M, Greenfield S, Ware JE Jr, Tarlov AR. A longitudinal study of hospitalization rates for patients with chronic disease: results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Health Serv Res. 1998 Feb;32(6):759-74. (PMID: 9460485)

93. Stier DM, Greenfield S, Lubeck DP, Dukes KA, Flanders SC, Henning JM, Weir J, Kaplan SH. Quantifying comorbidity in a disease-specific cohort: adaptation of the total illness burden index to prostate cancer. Urology. 1999 Sep;54(3):424-9. (PMID: 10475347)

94. Greenfield, S. Health profiles and quality of life. Acad Radiol. 1999 Jan; 6 Suppl 1:S89-S92; discussion 99. (PMID: 9891173)

95. Hofer TP, Hayward RA, Greenfield S, Wagner EH, Kaplan SH, Manning WG. The unreliability of individual physician “report cards” for assessing the costs and quality of care of a chronic disease. JAMA. 1999 Jun 9;281(22):2098-105. (PMID: 10367820)

96. Greenfield S. The Next Generation of Research in Provider Optimization. J Gen Intern Med. 1999 August;14(8):516-17. (PMID: 10491239)

97. Woolf SH, Davidson MB, Greenfield S, Bell HS, Ganiats TG, Hagen MD, Palda VA, Rizza RA, Spann SJ. Controlling blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An evidence-based policy statement by the American Academy of Family Physicians and American Diabetes Association. J Family Pract. 2000 May;49(5): 453-60. (PMID: 10836779)

98. Athienites NV, Miskulin DC, Fernandez G, Bunnapradist S, Simon G, Landa M, Schmid CH, Greenfield S, Levey AS, Meyer KB. Comorbidity assessment in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis using the index of coexistent disease. Semin Dial. 2000 Sep-Oct;13(5): 320-6. (PMID: 11014695)

99. Kaplan SH, Kravitz RL, Greenfield S. A critique of current uses of health status for the assessment of treatment effectiveness and quality of care. Med Care. 2000 Sep;38(9 Suppl):II184-91. (PMID: 10982106)

100. Caruso LB, Silliman RA, Demissie S, Greenfield S, Wagner EH. What can we do to improve physical function in older persons with type 2 diabetes? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000 Jul;55(7):M372-7. (PMID: 10898253)

101. Wilson IB, Dukes K, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Hillman B. Patients’ role in the use of radiology testing for common office practice complaints. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Jan 22;161(2):256-63. (PMID: 11176741)

102. Belfiglio M, De Berardis G, Franciosi M, Cavaliere D, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Pellegrini F, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A, Caimi V, Capani F, Corsi A, Della Vedova R, Massi Benedetti M, Taboga C, Tombesi M, Vespasiani G; QuED Study Group. The relationship between physicians' self-reported target fasting blood glucose levels and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 Mar;24(3):423-9. (PMID: 11289462)

103. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Connolly GA, Barlow S, Grand R. Methodologic issues in the conduct and interpretation of pediatric effectiveness research. Ambul Pediatr. 2001 Jan-Feb;1(1):63-70. (PMID: 11888374)

104. Gross PA, Greenfield S, Cretin S, Ferguson J, Grimshaw J, Grol R, Klazinga N, Lorenz W, Meyer GS, Riccobono C, Schoenbaum SC, Schyve P, Shaw C. Optimal methods for guideline implementation: conclusions from Leeds Castle meeting. Med Care. 2001 Aug; 39(8 Suppl 2):II85-92. (PMID: 11583124)

105. Fleming B, Greenfield S, Engelgau MM, Pogach LM, Clauser SB, Parrott MA. The Diabetes Quality Improvement Project: moving science into health policy to gain an edge on the diabetes epidemic. Diabetes Care. 2001 Oct;24(10):1815-20. (PMID: 11574448)

106. Franciosi M, Pelligrini F, De Berardis G, Belfiglio M, Cavaliere D, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. The impact of lood glucose self-monitoring on metabolic control and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients: an urgent need for better educational strategies. Diabetes Care. 2001 Nov;24(11):1870-77.

107. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Kahn R, Ninomiya J, Griffith JL. Profiling care provided by different groups of physicians: effects of patient case-mix (bias) and physician-level clustering on quality assessment results. Ann Int Med. 2002 Jan 15;136(2):111-21. (PMID: 11790062)

108. De Berardis G, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Pellegrini F, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Erectile dysfunction and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients: a serious problem too often overlooked. Diabetes Care. 2002 Feb;25(2):284-91. (PMID: 11815497)

109. Porath A, Arbelle JE, Grossman E, Gilutz H, Cohen E, Greenfield S, Garty M. A comparison of management and short-term outcomes of acute myocardial infarction patients admitted to coronary care units and medical wards: the importance of case mix. Eur J Intern Med. 2002 Dec;13(8):507-513. (PMID: 12446196)

110. Greenfield S. Defining and understanding “co-management” care. Diabetes Care. 2002 Sep;25(9):1657-8. (PMID: 12196445)

111. Pelligrini F, Belfiglio M, De Berardis G, Franciosi M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Corrado D, D’Ettoree A, Nicolucci A. Role of organizational factors in poor blood pressure control in patients with type 2 diabetes: the QuED Study Group--quality of care and outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Feb 24;163(4):473-80. (PMID: 12588208)

112. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Identifying patients with type 2 diabetes with a higher likelihood of erectile dysfunction: the role of the interaction between clinical and psychological factors; J Urol. 2003 Apr;169(4):1422-8. (PMID: 12629376)

113. Greenfield S. Are we ready to act on racial concordance?. J Public Health Policy. 2003;24(3-4):324-27. (PMID: 15015866)

114. De Berardis G, Pelligrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Quality of care and outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients: a comparison between general practice and diabetes clinics. Diabetes Care. 2004 Feb;27(2):398-406. (PMID: 14747220)

115. Kaplan SH, Greenfield S. The Patient’s role in reducing disparities. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Aug; 141(3):222-3. (PMID: 15289220)

116. Schneider J, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Wenjun L, Wilson I. Better physician-patient relationships are associated with higher reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection. J Gen Intern Med. 2004 Nov;19(11):1096-103. (PMID: 15566438)

117. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. Creating a culture of quality: the remarkable transformation of the department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Aug 17;141(4);316-8. (PMID: 15313749)

118. Franciosi M, Pellegrini F, De Berardis, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A. Correlates of satisfaction for the relationship with their physician in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004 Dec;66(3):277-86. (PMID: 15536025)

119. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Physician attitudes toward foot care education and foot examination and their correlation with patient practice. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):286-7. (PMID: 14694015)

120. Franciosi M, Pellegrini F, De Berardis G, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini MC, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Impact of physicians’ beliefs and practices on cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal assessment. Am Heart J. 2005 Jan; 149(1):104-11. (PMID: 15660041)

121. Linzer M, Pierce C, Lincoln E, Miller DR, Payne SM, Clark JA, Skinner KM, Greenfield S, Kaplan S, McHorney CA, Lee A, Kazis LE. Preliminary validation of a patient-based self-assessment measure of severity of illness in type 2 diabetes: results from the pilot phase of the Veterans health Study. J Ambul Care Manage. 2005 Apr-Jun; 28(2):167-76. (PMID: 15923949)

122. Franciosi M, Pellegrini F, De Berardis G, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini MC, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin-treated diabetic patients: a longitudinal evaluation of its impact on metabolic control. Diabetic Med. 2005 Jul; 22(7):900-6. (PMID: 15975106)

123. Parsons SK, Shih MC, Mayer DK, Barlow SE, Supran SE, Levy SL, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. Preliminary psychometric evaluation of the Child Health Ratings Inventory (CHRIs) and Disease-Specific Impairment Inventory-Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (DSII-HSCT) in parents and children. Qual Life Res. 2005 Aug; 14(6):1613-25. (PMID: 16110940)

124. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MCE, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Are Type 2 diabetic patients offered adequate foot care? The role of physician and patient characteristics. J Diabetes Complications. 2005 Nov-Dec; 19(6):319-27. (PMID: 16260348)

125. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Longitudinal assessment of quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes and self-reported erectile dysfunction. Diabetes Care. 2005 Nov; 28(11):2637-43. (PMID: 16249532)

126. Nicolucci A, Greenfield S, Mattke S. Selecting indicators for the quality of care at the health systems level in OECD countries. Int J Qual Health Care. 2006 Sep;18 Suppl 1:26-30. (PMID: 16954513)

127. Mukamel D, Glance L, Weimer D, Pearson T, Massey T, Gold J, Greenfield S, Jackson J, Mushlin A. Racial variations in the choice of on-pump versus off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2007 Jan;12(1):31-5. (PMID: 17244395)

128. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED Study Group. Clinical and psychological predictors of incidence of self-reported erectile dysfunction in patients with Type 2 diabetes. J Urol. 2007 Jan;177(1):252-7. (PMID: 17162057)

129. Greenfield S, Kravitz R, Duan N, Kaplan SH. Heterogeneity of treatment effects: implications for guidelines, payment, and quality assessment. Am J Med. 2007 Apr; 120(4 Suppl 1):S3-9. (PMID: 17403380)

130. Greenfield S, Kravitz RL. Heterogeneity of treatment effects: subgroup analysis. Institute of Medicine (IOM).The Learning Healthcare System: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2007;113-123.

131. Litwin MS, Greenfield S, Elkin EP, Lubeck DP, Broering JM, Kaplan SH. Assessment of prognosis with the total illness burden index for prostate cancer: aiding clinicians in treatment choice. Cancer. 2007 May 1;109(9):1777-1783. (PMID: 17354226)

132. Werner RM, Greenfield S, Fung C, Turner BJ. Measuring quality of care in patients with multiple clinical conditions: summary of a conference conducted by the Society of General Internal Medicine. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Aug; 22(8):1206-11. (PMID: 17516106)

133. Greenfield S. Evaluating quality improvement. Pediatrics. 2007 Nov;120(5):1131-2. (PMID: 17974751)

134. Ngo-Metzger Q, Sorkin DH, Phillips RS, Greenfield S, Massagli MP, Clarridge B, Kaplan SH. Providing High-Quality Care for Limited English Proficient Patients: The Importance of Language Concordance and Interpreter Use. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Nov; 22(Suppl 2):324-30. (PMID: 17957419)

135. De Berardis G, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, Belfiglio M, Di Nardo B, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Rossi MC, Sacco M, Tognoni G, Valentini M, Nicolucci A; QuED (Quality of Care and Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes) Study Group. Quality of diabetes care predicts the development of cardiovascular events: results of the QuED study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2008 Jan; 18(1):57-65. (PMID: 16860547)

136. Lane JS, Magno CP, Lane KT, Chan T, Hoyt DB, Greenfield S. Nutrition impacts the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in the United States. J Vasc Surg. 2008 Oct; 48(4):897-904. (PMID: 18586439)

137. Lane K, Kempf A, Magno C, Lane J, Butler J, Hsiang D, Greenfield S, Jakowatz J. Regional differences in the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: a potential quality measure 2008. Am Surg. 2008 Oct;74(10):981-4. (PMID: 18942627)

138. Kaplan SH, Griffith JL, Price LL, Pawlson G, Greenfield S. Improving the reliability of physician performance assessment: identifying the “physician effect” on quality and creating composite measures. Med Care. 2009 Apr;47(4):378-87. (PMID: 19279511)

139. Shulman LN, Jacobs LA, Green?eld S, Jones B, McCabe MS, Syrjala K, Diller L, Shapiro CL, Marcus AC, Campbell M, Santacroce S, Kagawa-Singer M, Ganz PA. Cancer care and cancer survivorship care in the United States: will we be able to care for these patients in the future?. J Oncol Pract. 2009 May:5(3):119-23. (PMID: 20856750)

140. Ong MK, Mangione CM, Romano PS, Zhou Q, Auerbach AD, Chun A, Davidson B, Ganiats TG, Greenfield S, Gropper MA, Malik S, Rosenthal JT, Escarce JJ. Looking forward, looking back: assessing variations in hospital resource use and outcomes for elderly patients with heart failure. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2009 Nov;2(6):548-57. (PMID: 20031892)

141. Sox HC, Greenfield S. Comparative effectiveness research: a report from the Institute of Medicine. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Aug 4;151(3):203-205. (PMID: 19567618)

142. Nekhkyudov L, Greenfield S. Cancer survivorship care for the general internist: have we paved the way for a smoother transition?. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Nov;24 Suppl 2:S381-2. (PMID: 19838835)

143. Greenfield S, Billimek J, Pellegrini F, Franciosi M, De Berardis G, Nicolucci A, Kaplan SH. Comorbidity affects the relationship between glycemic control and cardiovascular outcomes in diabetes: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Dec 15;151(12):854-60. (PMID: 20008761)

144. Weitzman S, Greenfield S, Billimek J, Hava T, Schvartzman P, Yehiel E, Tandeter H, Eilat-Tsanani S, Kaplan SH. Improving combined diabetes outcomes by adding a simple patient intervention to physician feedback: a cluster randomized trial. Isr Med Assoc. 2009 Dec;11(12):719-724. (PMID: 20166337)

145. Kaplan SH, Billimek J, Sorkin DH, Ngo-Metzger Q, Greenfield S. Who can respond to treatment? Identifying patient characteristics related to heterogeneity of treatment effects. Med Care. 2010 Jun;48(6 Suppl):S9-16. (PMID: 20473205)

146. Sox HC, Greenfield S. Quality of care--how good is good enough?. JAMA. 2010 Jun 16;303(23):2403-4. (PMID: 20551411)

147. Daskivich TJ, Sadetsky N, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Litwin MS. Severity of comorbidity and non-prostate cancer mortality in men With early-stage prostate cancer. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Aug 9;170(15):1396-1397. (PMID: 20696968)

148. Holmboe ES, Weng W, Arnold G, Kaplan SH, Normand SL, Greenfield S, Hood S, Lipner RS. The comprehensive care project: measuring physician performance in ambulatory practice. Health Serv Res. 2010 Dec;45(6 Pt 2):1912-33. (PMID: 20819110)

149. Daskivich TJ, Chamie K, Kwan L, Labo J, Palvolgyi R, Dash A, Greenfield S, Litwin MS. Overtreatment of men with low-risk prostate cancer and significant comorbidity. Cancer. 2011 May;117(10):2058-66. (PMID: 21523717)

150. O’Connor PJ, Bodkin NL, Fradkin J, Glasgow RE, Greenfield S, Gregg E, Kerr EA, Pawlson LG, Selby JV, Sutherland JE, Taylor ML, Wysham CH. Diabetes performance measures: current status and future directions. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jul; 34(7):1651-9. (PMID: 21709298)

151. Daskivich TJ, Chamie K, Kwan L, Labo J, Dash A, Greenfield S, Litwin MS. Comorbidity and competing risks for mortality in men with prostate cancer. Cancer. 2011 Oct 15;117(20): 4642-50. (PMID: 21480201)

152. Daskivich TJ, Chamie K, Kwan L, Labo J, Dash A, Greenfield S, Litwin MS. Improved prediction of long-term, other cause mortality in men with prostate cancer. J Urol. 2011 Nov;186(5):1868-73. (PMID: 21944092)

153. Sorkin D, Ngo-Metzger Q, Billimek J, August KJ, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. Underdiagnosed and undertreated depression among racially/ethnically diverse patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011 Mar;34(3):598-600. (PMID: 21273497)

154. Greenfield S, Rich E. Welcome to the Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research. J Comp Eff Res. 2012 Jan;1(1):1-3. (PMID: 24237290)

155. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. Building useful evidence: changing the clinical research paradigm to account for comparative effectiveness research. J Comp Eff Res. 2012 Apr; 1(3):263-270. (PMID: 23577230)

156. Greenfield S, Platt R. Can observational studies approximate RCTs?. Value Health. 2012 Mar-Apr;15(2):215-6. (PMID: 22433751)

157. Ngo-Metzger Q, Sorkin DH, Billimek J, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. The effects of financial pressures on adherence and glucose control among racial/ethnically diverse patients with diabetes. J Gen Intern Med. 2012 Apr;27(4):432-7. (PMID: 22005941)

158. Chamie K, Daskivich TJ, Kwan L, Labo J, Dash A, Greenfield S, Litwin MS. Comorbidities, treatment and ensuing survival in men with prostate cancer.
J Gen Intern Med. 2012 May;27(5):492-9. (PMID: 21935751)

159. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. Observational studies versus randomized trials: squaring off. J Comp Eff Res. 2012 Sep;1(5):385-6. (PMID: 24236414)

160. Penson DF, Barocas DA, Fleshner N, Sanda MG, Greenfield S. Outcomes session. Urol Oncol. 2012 Nov-Dec;30(6):952-5. (PMID: 23218075)

161. Malik S, Billimek J, Greenfield S, Sorkin D, Ngo-Metzger Q, Kaplan SH, Patient complexity and risk factor control among mulitmorbid patients with Type 2 diabetes: results from the R2D2C2 study. Med Care. 2013 Feb;51(2):180-5. (PMID: 23047130)

162. Resnick M, Barocas D, Morgans A, Phillips S, Fan KH, Koyama T, Albertsen P, Chen V, Cooperberg M, Graff J, Greenfield S, Hamilton A, Hoffman K, Hoffman R, Kaplan SH, Stanford J, Stroup A, Wu XC, Penson D. 449: The Burden of Pre-Treatment Urinary, Sexual, and Bowel Dysfunction Across Two Decades of Prostate Cancer: Results from PCOS and CEASAR. J Urol. 2013 May;189(4S): e184.

163. Liss MA, Billimek J, Osann K, Cho J, Moskowitz R, Kaplan A, Szabo R, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Dash A. Consideration of comorbidity in risk stratification prior to prostate biopsy. Cancer. 2013 Jul 1;119(13):2413-8. (PMID: 23619920)

164. Barocas DA, Chen V, Cooperberg M, Goodman M, Graff J, Greenfield S, Hamilton A, Hoffman K, Kaplan S, Koyama T, Morgans A, Paddock LE, Phillips S, Resnick MJ, Stroup A, Wu XC, Penson DF. Using a population-based observational cohort study to address difficult comparative effectiveness research questions: The CEASAR study. J Comp Eff Res. 2013 Jul;2(4):445-60. (PMID: 24236685)

165. Greenfield S, Sohn W. From methods to policy: The complexities of comparative effectiveness research on devices: the case of robotic-assisted surgery for prostate cancer. J Comp Eff Res. 2013 Jul;2(4):367-70. (PMID: 24236676)

166. Greenfield S. Comparative effectiveness and the future of clinical research in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013 Aug;36(8):2146-7. (PMID: 23881966)

167. Daskivich TJ, Chamie K, Kwan L, Dash A, Greenfield S, Litwin MS. Matching tumor risk with aggressiveness of treatment in men with multiple comorbidities and early-stage prostate cancer. Cancer. 2013 Oct;119(19)3446-53. (PMID: 23861016)

168. Kaplan SH, Billimek J, Sorkin DH, Ngo-Metzger Q, Greenfield S. Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in diabetes: the Coached Care (R2D2C2) project. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Oct;28(10):1340-9. (PMID: 23645452)

169. Uhlig K, Leff B, Kent D, Dy S, Brunnhuber K, Burgers JS, Greenfield S, Guyatt G, High K, Leipzig R, Mulrow C, Schmader K, Schunemann H, Walter LC, Woodcock J, and Boyd CM. A framework for crafting clinical practice guidelines that are relevant to the care and management of people with multimorbidity. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Apr; 29(4):670-9. (PMID: 24442332)

170. Black JT, Romano PS, Sadeghi B, Auerbach AD, Ganiats TG, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Ong MK. A remote monitoring and telephone nurse coaching intervention to reduce readmissions among patients with heart failure: study protocol for the Better Effectiveness After Transition - Heart Failure (BEAT-HF) randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2014 Apr 13;15:124. (PMID: 24725308)

171. Resnick MJ, Barocas DA, Morgans AK, Phillips SE, Chen VW, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Hamilton AS, Hoffman KE, Kaplan SH, Paddock LE, Stroup AM, Wu XC, Koyama T, Penson DF. Contemporary prevalence of pretreatment urinary, sexual, hormonal, and bowel dysfunction: Defining the population at risk for harms of prostate cancer treatment. Cancer. 2014 Apr 15;120(8):1263-71. (PMID: 24510400)

172. Brenneman SK, Shen W, Brekke L, Paczowski R, Bancroft T, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Berger M, Buesching DP. Field-testing the ENSEMBLE Minimum Dataset: performance of an instrument to address heterogeneity of treatment effects. J Comp Eff Res. 2014 Sep;3(5):463-72. (PMID: 25350798)

173. Dormer L, Greenfield S. The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act Investment in Comparative Effectiveness Research: Lessons Learned and Implications for Future Investments. J Comp Eff Res. 2014 Nov;3(6):559. (PMID: 25494558)

174. Nguyen H, Sorkin DH, Billimek J, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Ngo-Metzger Q. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among non-Hispanic white, Mexican American, and Vietnamese American patients with type 2 diabetes. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2014 Nov; 25(4):1941-55. (PMID: 25418251)

175. Daskivich TJ, Kwan L, Dash A, Greenfield S, Litwin M. Weighted versus unweighted Charlson score to predict long-term other-cause mortality in men with early-stage
prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2014 Dec; 66(6):1002-9. (PMID: 24924554)

176. Billimek J, Malik S, Sorkin DH, Schmalbach P, Ngo-Metzger Q, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. Understanding disparities in lipid management among patients with type 2 diabetes: gender differences in medication nonadherence after treatment intensification. Womens Health Issues. 2015 Jan-Feb;25(1):6-12. (PMID: 25442365)

177. Resnick MJ, Barocas DA, Morgans AK, Phillips SE, Koyama T, Albertsen PC, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Hamilton AS, Hoffman KE, Hoffman RM, Kaplan SH, McCollum D, Paddock LE, Stanford JL, Stroup AM, Wu XC, Penson DF. The Evolution of Self-Reported Urinary and Sexual Dysfunction over the Last Two Decades: Implications for Comparative Effectiveness Research. Eur Urol. 2015 Jun;67(6):1019-25. (PMID: 25174325)

178. Sorkin DH, Billimek J, August KJ, Ngo-Metzger Q, Kaplan SH, Reikes AR, Greenfield S. Mental health symptoms and patient-reported diabetes symptom burden: implications for medication regimen changes. Fam Pract. 2015 Jun; 32(3):317-22. (PMID: 25846216)

179. Cannesson M, Ramsingh D, Rinehart J, Demirjian A, Vu T, Vakharia S, Imagawa D, Yu Z, Greenfield S, Kain S. Perioperative goal-directed therapy and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery: A historical-prospective, comparative effectiveness study. Crit Care. 2015 Jun 19; 19:261. (PMID: 26088649)

180. Hidas G, Billimek J, Nan A, Wehbi E, Watts B, Pribish M, Tandis S, McAleer I, McLorie G, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Khoury AE. Predicting the Risk for Breakthrough Urinary Tract Infection in Children with Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux. J Urol. 2015 Nov;194(5):1396-401. (PMID: 26066405)

181. Ong MK, Romano PS, Edgington S, Aronow HU, Auerbach AD, Black JT, De Marco T, Escarce JJ, Evangelista LS, Hanna B, Ganiats TG, Greenberg BH, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Kimchi A, Liu H, Lombardo D, Mangione CM, Sadeghi B, Sadeghi B, Sarrafzadeh M, Tong K, Fonarow GC, and BEAT-HF Research Group. Remote patient monitoring after discharge of hospitalized heart failure patients: the Better Effectiveness After Transition – Heart Failure (BEAT-HF) randomized controlled trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Mar; 176(3):310-8. (PMID: 26857383)

182. O’Neil B, Koyama T, Alvarez J, Albertsen PC, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Hamilton AS, Hoffman KE, Hoffman RM, Kaplan SH, Stanford JL, Stroup AM, Wu XC, Resnick MJ, Barocas DA, Penson DF. The Comparative Harms of Open and Robotic Prostatectomy in a Population-Based Sample. J Urol. 2016 Feb; 195(2):321-9. (PMID: 26343985)

183. Choi SE, Ngo-Metzger Q, Billimek J, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Sorkin DH. Contributor’s to Patients’ Ratings of Quality of Care Among Ethnically Diverse Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. J Immigr Minor Health. 2016 Apr; 18(2):382-9. (PMID: 25740551)

184. Sohn W, Resnick M, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Phillips S, Koyama T, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Hamilton AS, Hoffman KE, Hoffman RM, Stanford JL, Stroup AM, Wu X, Penson D, Barocas D. Impact of Adherence to Quality Measures for Localized Prostate Cancer on Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes, Patient Satisfaction, and Treatment-Related Complications. Med Care. 2016 Aug; 54(8):738-44. (PMID: 27219634)

185. Wright DJ, Mukamel DB, Greenfield S, Bederman SS. Cost Variation Within Spinal Fusion Payment Groups. Spine (Phila Pa 1976).2016 Nov;41(22):1747-53. (PMID: 27111760)

186. Greenfield S. Clinical Practice Guidelines: Expanded Use and Misuse. JAMA.2017 Feb; 317(6):594-5.

187. Eifler JB, Alvarez J, Koyama T, Conwill RM, Ritch CR, Hoffman KE, Resnick MJ, Penson DF, Barocas DA, Albertsen PC, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Hamilton A, Hoffman RM, Kaplan SH, Paddock L, Stanford JL, Stroup AM, Wu XC. More judicious use of expectant management for localized prostate cancer during the last two decades. J Urol. 2017 Mar;197(3Pt1):341-320. (PMID: 27984110)

188. Barocas DA, Alvarez J, Resnick MJ, Koyama T, Tyson MD, Conwill R, McCollum D, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Hamilton AS, Hashibe M, Hoffman KE, Kaplan SH, Paddock LE, Stroup AM, Wu XC, Penson DF. Association between radiation therapy, surgery, or observation for localized prostate cancer and patient-reported outcomes after 3 years. JAMA. 2017 Mar;317(11):1126-40. (PMID: 28324093)

189. Lang MF, Tyson MD, Alvarez JR, Koyama T, Hoffman KE, Resnick MJ, Cooperberg MR, Wu XC, Chen V, Paddock LE, Hamilton AS, Hashibe M, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Kaplan SH, Stroup A, Penson DF, Barocas DA. The Influence of Psychosocial Constructs on the Adherence to Active Surveillance for Localized Prostate Cancer in a Prospective, Population-based Cohort. Urology. 2017;103:173-8. (PMID: 28189554)

190. Tyson MD, Alvarez J, Koyama T, Hoffman KE, Resnick MJ, Wu XC, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Hamilton AS, Hashibe M, Paddock LE, Stroup A, Chen VW, Penson DF, Barocas DA. Racial Variation in Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Treatment for Localized Prostate Cancer: Results from the CEASAR Study. European urology. 2017;72(2):307-14. (PMID: 27816300)

191. Greenfield S. Making Real-World Evidence More Useful for Decision Making. Value in Health. 2017 Sep;20(8):1023-24. (PMID: 28964432)

192. Greenfield S, Kaplan SH. When clinical practice guidelines collide: finding a way forward. Ann Intern Med. 2017 Oct;167(9):677-8. (PMID: 29059688)

193. Greenfield S. Guideline recommendations for preventive healthcare services: understanding and managing conflict of interest when population health meets personalized medicine. Am J Prev Med. 2018 Jan;54(1):153-5. (PMID: 29254553)

194. Daskivich TJ, Abedi G, Kaplan SH, Skarecky D, Ahlering T, Spiegel B, Litwin MS, Greenfield S. Electronic Health Record Problem List: Accurate Enough for Risk Adjustment?. Am J Manag Care. 2018; 24(1):e294-e299. (PMID: 29350512)

195. Flanders SC, Kim J, Wilson S, Braziunas J, Greenfield S, Billimek J, Lechpammer S, Lin DW, Karsh L, Quinn DI, Shevrin D, Shore ND, Symanowski JT, Penson DF. Validation of the total illness burden index for prostate cancer (TIBI-CaP) in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC): data from TRUMPET. Future Oncology. 2018;14(6):527-536.

196. S Avulova, Zhao Z, Lee D, Huang LC, Koyama T, Hoffman KE, Conwill RM, Wu XC, Chen V, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Hamilton AS, Hashibe M, Paddock LE, Stroup A, Resnick MJ, Penson DF, Barocas DA. The effect of nerve sparing status on sexual and urinary function: 3-year results from the CEASAR study. J Urol. 2018 May;199(5):1202-1209. (PMID: 29253578)

197. Tyson MD, Koyama T, Lee D, Hoffman KE, Resnick MJ, Wu XC, Cooperberg MR, Goodman M, Greenfield S, Hamilton AS, Hashibe M, Paddock Le, Stroup A, Chen V, Conwill R, McCollum D, Penson DF, Barocas DA. Effect of Prostate Cancer Severity on Functional Outcomes After Localized Treatment: Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation Study Results.Eur Urol. 2018 Jul;74(1):26-33. (PMID: 29501451)

198. Gu JT, Kaplan SH, Greenfield S, Calloway H, Wong BJF. Validation of a Septoplasty Deformity Grading System for the Evaluation of Nasal Obstruction. The Laryngoscope. Accepted 2018 May. In press.
Co-Principal Investigator, Precision Medicine for Early Prostate Cancer: Integrating Biological and Patient Complexity Variables to Predict Treatment Response, California Initiative to Advance Precision Medicine (CIAPM)
Professional Societies
Member, Institute of Medicine
Member, Society of General Internal Medicine
Other Experience
Intern, Junior Assistant Resident in Medicine
V and VI Medical Services (Boston University); Boston Hospital - Boston, MA 1964—1966

Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, Epidemiology Program
National Communicable Disease Center (now Center for Disease Control) - Syracuse, NY 1966—1968

Senior Assistant Resident, Medicine
Beth Israel Hospital, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Harvard Medical School - Boston, MA 1969—1971

Training Fellow in Infectious Disease
Beth Israel Hospital, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Harvard Medical School - Boston, MA 1969—1971

Chief Resident in Medicine
Beth Israel Hospital - Boston, Ma 1971—1972

Instructor in Medicine
Harvard Medical School - Boston, MA 1971—1972

Medical Director
National Study of Medical Outcomes 1984—1996

RAND/UCLA Center for Health Policy Study - Los Angeles, CA 1982—1988

Professor of Medicine and Public Health
UCLA School of Medicine and UCLA School of Public Health - Los Angeles, CA 1984—1988

Professor of Medicine and Chief, Division of Health Services Research
Department of Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine - Boston, MA 1988—2003

Senior Scientist
The Health Institute, New England Medical Center Hospitals - Boston, MA 1988—1993

Professor of Medicine and Community Health
Departments of Community Health and Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine - Boston, MA 1999—2003

Adjunct Professor
Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health - Boston, MA 1988—2004

Donald Bren Professor of Medicine
University of California - Irvine, CA 2003—Now

Research Center
Health Policy Research Institute
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