Sabee Y. Molloi

picture of Sabee Y. Molloi

Professor, Radiological Sciences
School of Medicine

Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, 1987, Medical Physics

M.S., University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, 1985, Medical Physics

Phone: (949) 824-5904, 7854
Fax: (949) 824-2837

University of California, Irvine
B140 Medical Sciences 1
Medical Sciences I B-140
Mail Code: 5000
Irvine, CA 92697
Research Interests
Quantitative aspects of medical x-ray imaging and its applications to cardiac and breast imaging
Academic Distinctions
1979 Mathematics Scholarship Award, Minnesota State University, Mankato, Minnesota
1980 American Chemical Society Award, Minnesota State University, Mankato, Minnesota
1980 Outstanding Senior Award, Minnesota State University, Mankato, Minnesota
1980 Magna cum Laude Award, Minnesota State University, Mankato, Minnesota
1997 American Heart Association Established Investigator Award
2010 Fellow of the American Association of Physics in Medicine
Research Abstract
Dr. Molloi is involved in the development of quantitative techniques using diagnostic medical x-ray imaging technology. He is particularly interested in dual-energy digital subtraction angiography and its applications in cardiac imaging. He is developing techniques for volumetric coronary blood flow measurement using digital subtraction angiography. In addition, he is interested in image detection and digital image processing.
J-1. Light MC, Molloi SY, Yandow DR, Ranallo FN: "Scatter radiation expo¬sure during knee arthrography”. Radiology 164:867-868, 1987.

J-2. Van Lysel MS, Ergun DL, Miller WP, Toggart EJ, Cusma JT, Peppler WW, Molloi S, Mistretta CA: "Cardiac digital angiography and dual-energy subtraction imaging: current and future trends". Amer J Cardiac Imaging, 1:254-256, 1987.

J-3. Molloi SY, Mistretta CA: "Scatter-glare corrections in quantitative dual-energy fluoroscopy". Medical Physics 15(3): 289-297, 1988.

J-4. Molloi S, Mazess R, Bendsen H, Wilson M: "Whole body and regional retention
of 99m Tc-labeled diphosphonates with whole-body counter: A study with
normal males". Calcif Tissue Int. 44:322-329, 1989.

J-5. Molloi SY, Mistretta CA: "Quantification techniques for dual-energy cardiac imaging". Medical Physics 16(2):209-217, 1989.

J-6. Molloi SY, Weber DM, Peppler WW, Folts JD, Mistretta CA: "Quantitative Dual-En¬ergy Coronary Arteriography". Invest Radiol, 25:908-914, 1990.

J-7. Molloi S, Detrano R, Ersahin A, Roeck W, Morcos C: "Quantification of coronary arterial calcium by dual energy digital subtraction fluoroscopy". Medical Physics, 18(2):295-298, 1991.

J-8. Molloi S, Ersahin A, Roeck W, Nalcioglu O: "Absolute cross-sectional area measurements in quantitative coronary arteriography by dual-energy DSA". Invest Radiol, 26: 119-127, 1991.

J-9. Weber DM, Molloi SY, Folts JD, Peppler WW, Mistretta CA: “Geometric
quantitative coronary arteriography. A comparison of unsubtracted and dual-energy subtracted images”. Invest Radiol, 26(7): 649-654, 1991.

J-10. Detrano R, Molloi S: "Radiographically detectable calcium and atherosclerosis: the connection and its exploitation". International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, 8(3):209-215, 1992.

J-11. Molloi S, Qian Y, Ersahin A, “Absolute volumetric blood flow measurements using dual-energy digital subtraction angiography”. Medical Physics, 20 (1): 85-91, 1993.

J-12. Detrano R, Kang X, Mahaisavariya P, Tang W, Colombo A, Molloi S, Garner D, Nickerson S, "Accuracy of quantifying coronary hydroxyapatite with electron beam tomography". Invest Radiol, 29(8):733-738, 1994.

J-13. Mahaisavariya P, Detrano R, Kang X, Garner D, Vo A, Georgiou D, Molloi S,
Brundage BH, "Quantification of in vitro coronary artery calcium using ultrafast computed tomography". Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis, 32(4):387-393, 1994.

J-14. Molloi S, Ersahin A, Qian Y, "CCD camera for dual-energy digital subtraction angiography”. IEEE Transaction on Medical Imaging, 14(4):747-752, 1995.

J-15. Ersahin A, Molloi S, Qian Y, "A digital filtration technique for Scatter-glare correction based on thickness estimation". IEEE Transaction on Medical Imaging, 14(3):587-595, 1995.

J-16. Ersahin A, Molloi S, Hicks J, “Absolute phasic blood flow measurement in the brain using digital subtraction angiography” Investigative Radiology, 30(4): 244-253, 1995.

J-17. Molloi S, Ersahin A, Hicks J, Wallis J, "In-vivo validation of videodensitometric coronary cross-sectional area measurement using dual-energy digital subtraction angiography” International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, 11(4):223-231, 1995.

J-18. Detrano R; Tang W; Kang X; Mahaisavariya P; McCrae M; Garner D; Peng SK; Measham C; Molloi S; Gutfinger D; et al., "Accurate coronary calcium phosphate mass measurements from electron beam computed tomograms" American Journal of Cardiac Imaging, 9(3):167-73, 1995.

J-19. Hicks J, Ishimatsu A, Molloi S, Ersahin A, Heisler N, "The mechanism of cardiac shunting in reptiles: A new synopsis" Journal of Experimental Biology, 199:1435-1446, 1996.

J-20. Molloi S, Ersahin A, Tang J, Hicks J, Leung C, "Quantification of volumetric coronary blood flow with dual-energy digital subtraction angiography" Circulation, 93:1919-1927, 1996.

J-21. Molloi S, Zhang W, Leung C, Hiro T, Hicks J, "Measurement of a cross-sectional area of normal and stenotic arteries with videodensitometric quantitative arteriography and intravascular ultrasound" Academic Radiology, 4:245-252, 1997.

J-22. Molloi S, Bednarz G, Tang J, Zhou Y, Mather T, "Absolute volumetric coronary blood flow measurement with digital subtraction angiography" International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging , 14:137-145, 1998.

J-23. Molloi S, Zhou Y, Wamsely G, "Scatter-glare estimation for digital radiographic systems: Comparison of digital filtration and sampling techniques" IEEE Transaction in Medical Imaging 17(6):881-888, 1998.

J-24. Zhou Y, Mather T, Molloi S, “Scatter and veiling glare estimation based on sampled primary intensity” Medical Physics 26(11): 2301-2310, 1999.

J-25. Molloi S, Tang G, Mather T, Zhou Y, "Area x-ray beam equalization for digital angiography" Medical Physics 26(12): 2684-2692, 1999.

J-26. Zhou Y, Kassab G, Molloi S, “On the design of the coronary arterial tree - A generalization of Murray’s law” Physics in Medicine and Biology 44(5): 2929-2945, 1999.

J-27 Molloi S, Kassab G, Zhou Y, “Quantification of coronary lumen volume by digital angiography: In-vivo validation” Circulation, 104:2351-2357, 2001.

J-28. Kassab G, Molloi S, “Cross-sectional area and volume compliance of the porcine left coronary arteries” American Journal of Physiology, 281:H623-H628, 2001.

J-29. Molloi S, Van Drie A, Wang F, "X-ray beam equalization: Feasibility and performance of an automated prototype system in a phantom and swine” Radiology, 221(3): 668-675, 2001.

J-30. Shikhaliev P, Molloi S, “Applications of "edge-on" illuminated Porous Plate detectors for diagnostic X-ray imaging” Nuclear Instrumentation and Methods in Physics Research A, 487:676-684, 2002.

J-31. Zhou Y, Kassab G, Molloi S, “In vivo validation of the design rules of the coronary arteries and their application in the assessment of diffuse disease” Physics in Medicine and Biology, 47(6):977-993, 2002.

J-32. Chen Z, Molloi S, "Vascular tree object segmentation by deskeletonization of valley courses" Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 26(6):419-428, 2002.

J-33. Xu T, Shikhaliev P, Al-Ghazi M, Molloi S, “Reshapable physical modulator for intensity modulated radiation therapy” Medical Physics, 29(10):2222-2229, 2002.

J-34. Xu T, Le H, Molloi S, "A patient specific region of interest fluoroscopy device for dose reduction” Radiology, 226(2):585-592, 2003.

J-35. Chen Z, Molloi S, "Multiresolution vessel tracking in angiographic images using valley courses" Optical Engineering, 42(6):1673-1682, 2003. Also published in the Virtual Journal of Biological Physics Research, 5(11), 2003.

J-36. Hamza L, Dang Q, Lu X, Mian A, Molloi S, Kassab G, “The effect of passive myocardium on the compliance of porcine coronary arteries” American Journal of Physiology, 285:H653-H660, 2003.

J-37. Redpath J, Lu Q, Lao X, Molloi S, Elmore E, “Low doses of diagnostic energy x-rays protect against neoplastic transformation in vitro” International Journal of Radiation Biology, 79(4):235-240, 2003.

J-38. Shikhaliev P, Molloi S, “X-ray imaging with “edge-on” Microchannel Plate detector: first experimental results” Nuclear Instrumentation and Methods in Physics Research A, 510:401-405, 2003.

J-39. Molloi S, Berenji G, Dang T, Kassab G, "Assessment of vasoreactivity using videodensitometry coronary angiography” International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, 19:271-279, 2003.

J-40. Chen Z, Molloi S, "Automatic 3-D vascular tree construction in CT angiography" Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 27(6):469-479, 2003.

J-41. Molloi S, Dang Q, Breault J, “Effect of vessel orientation on videodensitometry quantitative coronary arteriography” Medical Physics, 30(11):2862-2868, 2003.

J-42. Chen Z, Xu T, Molloi S, "Vessel diameter estimation in X-ray angiographic images using a watergauge algorithm" Journal of Electronic Imaging, 12(4):724-742, 2003.

J-43. Pant M, Liao X, Lu Q, Molloi S, Elmore E, Redpath J, “Mechanism of suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro by low doses of low LET radiation” Carcinogenesis, 24(12):1961-1965, 2003.

J-44. Xu T, Shikhaliev P, Berenji G, Tehranzadeh J, Saremi F, Molloi S, "Area beam equalization: optimization and performance of an automated prototype system for chest radiography” Academic Radiology, 11(4):377-389, 2004.

J-45. Shikhaliev P, Xu T, Le H, Molloi S, “Scanning slit photon counting X-ray imaging system using a microchannel plate detector” Medical Physics, 31(5):1061-1071, 2004.

J-46. Molloi S, Zhou Y, Kassab G, “Regional volumetric coronary blood flow by digital angiography: In-vivo validation” Academic Radiology, 11(7):757-766, 2004.

J-47. Xu T, Al-Ghazi M, Molloi S, "Treatment planning considerations of reshapeable automatic intensity modulator for intensity modulated radiation therapy” Medical Physics, 31(8):2344-2355, 2004.

J-48. Wong J, Xu T, Husain A, Le H, Molloi S, “Effect of area x-ray beam equalization on image quality and dose in digital mammography” Physics in Medicine and Biology, 49:3539-3557, 2004.

J-49. Ko SJ, Liao X, Molloi S, Elmore E, Redpath J, “Neoplastic transformation in vitro after exposure to low doses of mammographic-energy x-rays: Quantitative and mechanistic aspects” Radiation Research, 162:645-654, 2004.

J-50. Shikhaliev P, Xu T, Molloi S, “Photon counting computed tomography: concept and initial results” Medical Physics, 32(2):427-436, 2005.

J-51. Mittal N, ZhouY, Ung S, Linares C, Molloi S, Kassab G, A computer reconstruction of the entire coronary arterial tree based on detailed morphometric data” Ann Biomed Eng. 2005 Aug;33(8):1015-26.

J-52. Shikhaliev P, Xu T, Ducote J, Molloi S, “Quantum efficiency of MCP detectors: Monte Carlo calculations” IEEE Transactions in Nuclear Sciences, 52(5):1257-1262, 2005.

J-53. Mittal N, ZhouY, Linares C, Molloi S, Kassab G, “Analysis of Blood Flow in the Entire Coronary Arterial Tree” Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Jul;289(1):H439-46. Epub 2005 Mar 25.

J-55. Choy S, Dang Q, Molloi S, Kassab G, “Nonuniformity of axial and circumferential remodeling of large coronary veins in response to ligation” Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005 Nov 18.

J-54. Shikhaliev P, Molloi S, “Count rate and dynamic range of an x-ray imaging system with MCP detector” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research (Section A). 557(2) 501-509, 2006.

J-56. Wong J, Ducote J, Xu T, Hassanein M, Molloi S, "Automated technique for angiographic determination of coronary blood flow and lumen volume”. Acad Radiol. 2006 Feb;13(2):186-94.

J-57 Movahed MR, Wong J, Molloi S. “Removal of iodine contrast from coronary sinus in swine during coronary angiography.” J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47 465-467.

J-58. Shikhaliev P, Xu T, Ducote J, Balasubram E, Mukherjee J, Molloi S, “Positron autoradiography for intravascular imaging: feasibility evaluation” 2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 963-979.

J-59. Xu T, Ducote J, Wong J, Molloi S, "Feasibility of dual-energy fluoroscopy based on a flat panel detector for coronary artery calcium quantification” Medical Physics, 33(6):1612-1622, 2006.

J-60. Ducote J, Xu T, Molloi S, "Optimization of a flat-panel based dual-energy fluoroscopy system for cardiac imaging” Medical Physics, 33(6):1562-1568, 2006.

J-61. Xu T, Wong J, Ducote J, Al-Ghazi M, Molloi S, "Real-time tumor tracking using implanted positron emitters: concept and simulation study” Medical Physics, 33(7):2598-609, 2006.

J-62. Ducote J, Xu T, Molloi S, "Dual energy cardiac imaging: an image quality and dose comparison for a flat panel detector and x-ray image intensifier” Phys. Med. Biol. 52:183–196, 2007.

J-63. Molloi S, Wong J, "Regional blood flow analysis and its relationship with arterial branch lengths and lumen volume in coronary arterial tree” Phys. Med. Biol., 52:1495–1503, 2007.

J-64. Wong J, Kamyar K, Molloi S, "Quantitative coronary angiography using image recovery techniques for background estimation in unsubtracted images”. Medical Physics, 34(10):4003-4015, 2007.

J-65. Le H, Wong J, Molloi S, "Estimation of regional myocardial mass at risk based on distal arterial lumen volume and length using 3D micro-CT images" Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, 32(6):488-501, 2008.

J-66. Wong J, Molloi S, "Determination of fractional flow reserve (FFR) based on scaling laws: a simulation study”. Phys. Med. Biol., 53(14):3995-4011, 2008.

J-67. Molloi S, Xu T, Ducote J, Iribarren C, "Quantification of breast arterial calcification using full field digital mammography” Medical Physics, 35(4):1428-1439, 2008.

J-68. Le H, Wong J, Molloi S, "Allometric scaling in the coronary arterial system" International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging, 24(7):771-781, 2008.

J-69. Ducote J, Molloi S, "Quantification of breast density using dual energy mammography: A simulation study” Medical Physics, 35(12):5411-8, 2008.

J-70. Molloi S, Mehraien T, Iribarren C, Smith C, Ducote J, Feig S, "Reproducibility of breast arterial calcium mass quantification using digital mammography” Academic Radiology, 16(3):275-82, 2009.

J-71. Ducote J, Molloi S, "Quantification of breast density with dual energy mammography: An experimental feasibility study” Medical Physics, 37(2):793-801, 2010.

J-72. Ducote J, Molloi S, "Scatter correction in quantitative dual energy mammography” Phys. Med. Biol., 55: 1295-1309, 2010.

J-73. Le H, Ducote J, Molloi S, "Radiation dose reduction using a CdZnTe-based breast computed tomography system: comparison to Flat Panel detectors" Medical Physics, 37(13):1225-36, 2010.

J-74. Alivov Y, Molloi S, “Self-organization of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles to regular shape clusters” Crystal Growth & Design, 10:1721-1724, 2010.

J-75. Alivov Y, Klopfer M, Molloi S, “TiO2 nanotubes as a new cold cathode for x-ray generation” Applied Physics Letters, 96: 2435021-3, 2010.

J-76. Alivov Y, Molloi S, “Calculation of field emission enhancement for TiO2 nanotube arrays” Journal of Applied Physics, 108: 243031-4, 2010.


J-77. Xu T, Ducote J, Wong J, Molloi S, "Dynamic dual-energy chest radiography: a potential tool for lung tissue motion monitoring and kinetic study” Phys. Med. Biol., 56: 1191–205, 2011.

J-78. Le H, Molloi S, "Least squares parameter estimation methods for material decomposition with energy discriminating detectors" Medical Physics, 38: 245-55, 2011.

J-79. Le H, Molloi S, "Segmentation and quantification of materials with energy discriminating computed tomography: a phantom study" Medical Physics, 38: 228-37, 2011.

J-80. Ducote J, Alivov Y, Molloi S, "Imaging of nanoparticles with dual-energy computed tomography” Phys. Med. Biol., 56(7): 2031-44, 2011.

J-81. Alivov Y, Klopfer M, Molloi S, “Effect of TiO2 nanotube parameters on field emission properties” Nanotechnology, 21(50): 505706 , 2011.

J-82. Zhang Z, Takarada S, Molloi S, “Quantification of coronary microvascular resistance using angiographic images for volumetric blood flow measurement: In-vivo validation” Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 300(6):H2096-104, 2011.

J-83. Lu X, Dang CQ, Guo X, Molloi S, Wassall C, Kemple M, Kassab G, "Elevated oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in right coronary artery of right ventricular hypertrophy.” J Appl Physiol, 110(6):1674-81, 2011.

J-84. Zhang Z-D, Svendsen M, Choy JS, Sinha AK, Huo Y, Yoshida K, Molloi S, Kassab GS,“New Method to Measure Coronary Velocity and Flow Reserve” Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 301(1):H21-8, 2011.

J-85. Zhang Z, Takarada S, Molloi S, “Assessment of Coronary Microcirculation in a Swine Animal Model” Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 301(2): H402-8, 2011.

J-86. Ducote J, Klopfer M, Molloi S, “Volumetric lean percentage measurement using dual energy mammography” Medical Physics, 38(8): 4498-4504, 2011.

J-87. Alivov Y, Klopfer M, Molloi S, “Enhanced field emission from clustered TiO2 nanotube arrays” Applied Physics Letters, 99(6): 063104-3, 2011.

J-88. Molloi S, Chalyan D, Le H, Wong J, "Estimation of coronary hyperemic artery blood flow based on arterial lumen volume using angiographic images” Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 28:1–11, 2012.
J-89. Wong J, Le H, Suh W, Chalyan D, Mehraien T, Kern M, Kassab G, Molloi S, "Quantification of fractional flow reserve based on angiographic image data”, Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 28:13–22, 2012.

J-90. Ding H, Ducote J, Molloi S, “Breast composition measurement with a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) based spectral computed tomography system” Medical Physics, 39(3):1289-97, 2012.

J-91. Ding H, Molloi S, “Image-based spectral distortion correction for photon-counting
X-ray detectors” Medical Physics, 39(4):1864-76, 2012.

J-92. Baturin P, Alivov Y, Molloi S, "Spectral CT imaging of vulnerable plaque with two independent biomarkers” Phys. Med. Biol., 57:4117–4138, 2012.
J-93. Klopfer M, Wolowiec T, Satchouk V, Alivov Y, Molloi S, “Characterization and optimization of pyroelectric X-ray sources using Monte Carlo spectral models” Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research (Section A). In-press, 2012.

J-94. Ding H, Molloi S, “Quantification of breast density with spectral mammography based
on a scanned multi-slit photon-counting detector: A feasibility study” Phys. Med. Biol., 57(15):4719-38, 2012.

J-95. Zhang Z, Takarada S, Molloi S, “Quantification of Absolute Coronary Flow Reserve and Relative Fractional Flow Reserve in a Swine Animal Model using Angiographic Image data” Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, In-press, 2012.

J-96. Takarada S, Zhang Z, Molloi S, “An Angiographic Technique for Coronary Fractional Flow Reserve Measurement: In-vivo Validation”, Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. In-press, 2012.

J-97 Zhao B, Ding H, Lu Y, Wang G, Zhao J, Molloi S, “Dual-Dictionary Learning-Based Iterative Image Reconstruction for Spectral Breast Computed Tomography Application” Phys. Med. Biol., In-press, 2012.
NIH Grant: Quantification of breast density using dual energy mammography NIH Grant:Multiethnic Study of Breast Arterial Calcium Gradation and CVD
Professional Society
American Association of Physicists in Medicine International
Graduate Programs
Biomedical Engineering

Research Center
Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, Edwards Lifesciences Center for Advanced Cardiovascular Technology
Last updated