Trauma surgery, Surgical critical care, General surgery, Thyroid surgery, Gastrointestinal surgery, Bariatric surgery
General Surgery Board Certified
Added Board Qualification in Surgical Critical Care
Licensed, Medical Board of California (G074848)
National Board of Medical Examiners Qualified
Drug Enforcement Agency Certification
ATLS State Faculty
Advanced Trauma Life Support Course Director
Advanced Trauma Life Support Instructor
Advanced Trauma Life Support Certified
Advanced Trauma Life Support Instructor Course Director
Advanced Trauma Life Support Instructor Course Instructor
Advanced Cardiac Life Support Certified
Advanced Burn Life Support Certified
Pediatric Advanced Life Support Certified
Basic Life Support Certified
Radiography Supervisor and Operator Licensed (California)
Fluoroscopy Supervisor and Operator Licensed (California)
UCIMC Conscious Sedation Qualified
Lifewings, Inc. certified
American College of Surgeons, Participant in Candidate Group
Southern California Chapter, American
College of Surgeons, Participant in Candidate Group
Society of Critical Care Medicine
Society of American Gastrointestinal
Orange County Surgical Society
American Medical Association
Committees University of California, Irvine Medical Center:
Trauma Executive Committee (6/95-present, Chair 4/97-present)
Trauma PI Committee (7/95-present, Chair 3/97-present)
Nutritional Support Committee (6/95-present, Chair 8/96-2/99)
Critical Care Committee (6/95-present, Chair, 10/99-6/03)
Disaster Management Committee (02/09)
Medical Executive Committee (3/97-present)
Antibiotic Subcommittee of P & T Committee (5/97-present)
Infection Control Committee (7/98-present)
Operating Room Committee (7/95-present)
Code Blue Committee (6/95-present)
SICU Infectious Disease Subcommittee (6/95-present, Chair 5/96-present)
Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee (8/96-07/07)
Medical Ethics Committee (12/96-6/01)
Privileging Committee (4/98-6/01)
Education Subcommittee of Medical Ethics Committee (6/97-6/01)
Ethics Subcommittee on Policy Review (3/97-10/97)
CSMC Housestaff Executive Committee (1994-5)
Orange County Surgical Society (Congress Chairman, 1998-99,
Membership Director, 1999-00)
Institutional Review Board (3/98-6/02)
Medical School Admissions Faculty Interviewer (1/97-present)
Department of Surgery Residency Interviewer (5/96-present)
Board of Directors, Elected Specialist Representative, UCI Medical Group (2001-2003 term)
Contracting Subcommittee, Board of Directors, UCI Medical Group (2001-2003 term)
Community & Government Service:
Emergency Department “Every 15 Minutes” Injury Prevention Program (2003 to Present)
Facilities Advisory Committee, Emergency Medical
Services, County of Orange Health Care Agency (6/97-present)
Trauma Operations Committee, Emergency Medical Services, County of Orange Health Care Agency (2/98-present, Chair 2/99- present)
Trauma System Site Review, Washington State EMS (2005)
Trauma System Site Review, Riverside County EMS (2003)
Trauma System Site Review, Santa Barbara County (2001)
Honors and Awards:
City of Los Angeles Certificate of Appreciation, July 2008
Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, Special Appreciation, 2006
OC Emergency Medical Services Meritorious Service Award 2007
OC Emergency Medical Services Leadership Award 2007
John E. Connolly Award for Outstanding Resident Teaching, 1999, 2007
Highest National Score, Surgical Critical Care Board Exam
UCIMC Associates Development Award, 1998
American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, Verification Subcommittee, full 3 year verification of Level I Trauma Center, 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006
UCIMC Associates Development Award, 1997
Alumni Scholarship, University of California, Riverside
Retail Clerks Union Scholarship
Jessica Jenkins Scholarship, University of California, Riverside
Deans List, University of California, Riverside
Process Improvement Team / Projects:
Guidelines for Prevention of Unplanned Extubations (1998)
Guidelines for C-Spine Clearance (1998-9)
Trauma/Femur Fracture Carepath Team (1996)
Specialty Bed Advisory Subcommittee (1996)
Ad Hoc Blood Utilization Committee (1996-7)
Burn Center Verification Committee (1998-99)
Laparoscopic Pathway Committee (1998-1999)
Guidelines for Head Injury Management (2000-2001)
UCI Health Sciences Strategic Plan, Cost Improvement and Investment Task Force (1998)
Operating Cost Improvement & Investment Task Force (1998)
Chair, Inpatient Services, New Hospital Building Advisory Committee (2001-2003)
Chair, Trauma/Burn/Workman’s Compensation Development Task Force (2001-present)
Physician representative to Hospital Information Services Committee (2004-present)
Hospital Capacity Committee (2006-present)
Chair, Ad Hoc Committee to Continue Pediatric Trauma Care
SAGES Endoscopy Workshop, Jan 21-22, 1996 Orlando, Florida.
National Speakers Workshop, New Orleans, LA, June 26, 1997.
Laparoscopic Approach to Abdominal Wall Defects, Annenberg Center, Las Palmas, CA, Nov. 6-7, 1997.
Diagnostic Ultrasound for Trauma, Sharp Memorial Hospital, July 1, 1998.
Mini-Laparoscopy and Ultrasound for Surgeons Course, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, Sept. 25-26, 1998.
Laparoscopic Approach to Colon-Rectal Surgery. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, March 16th, 1999.
Perfix-Plug Herniorrhaphy course, The Hernia Center, Freeport, New Jersey, June 28-29, 1999.
Laparoscopic Incisional Hernia Symposium, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, June 2, 2000.
Improving Outcomes in High-Risk Surgical Patients Through the Use of Albumin: Advisory Panel for the Plasma Protein Therapeutics Association, Beverly Hills, CA, November 15,2000
Trauma Center Leadership Conference: Shaping the Future of Trauma Care (Bishop and Associates), February 9, 2001.
OCSS Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery Training Course. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, February 22, 2001.
Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery Teleconference (UCSF), Huntington Memorial Hospital, March, 2001.
Trauma Ultrasound, Sonosite Course, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, April 12, 2001
Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair course, University of Southern California, (sponsored by Ethicon) 2004
Hand-Carried Ultrasound Innovation Summit, Seattle Washington, July 22-23, 2007
UCI Physicians Leadership Program, The Paul Merage School of Business, University of California, Irvine,
March 29 – November 22, 2008
ATLS State Faculty for course number 33510-P/SR, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Orange, California, January 12-13, 2009
BPI severe hemorrhagic trauma study (Principle Investigator). We are participating in a multi-center trial of an investigational drug (rBPI121, XOMA Corporation) used in the treatment of severe hemorrhagic shock.
Endoscopic ultrasound in the evaluation of suspected common bile duct stones (Co-investigator). We are participating along with the Gastroenterology Department in a multi-centered trial comparing endoscopic ultrasound to ERCP and intra-operative cholangiogram in the evaluation of common duct stones.
Nitric oxide in ARDS (Co-investigator). We are participating along with the Pulmonary-Critical Care Department in a multi-centered trial comparing therapeutic nitric oxide with placebo in the treatment of ARDS.
Lekawa ME. “Management of the Trauma Patient.” Surgery: The University of California Irvine Manual of Surgery, 5th Edition. Current Clinical Strategies Publishing, Inc., S.E. Wilson, Editor, in press, May 1998
1. Burns M, Price JB, Lekawa ME. “Delirium Tremens.” eMedicine. April 2001
a. Burns M, Price JB, Lekawa ME. “Delirium Tremens.” eMedicine. April 2004
b. Burns M, Price JB, Lekawa ME. “Delirium Tremens.” eMedicine. April 2007
Lekawa ME. “Management of the Trauma Patient.” Surgery: 2002 Edition The University of California Irvine Manual of Surgery. Current Clinical Strategies Publishing, Inc., S.E. Wilson, Editor, 2002
3. Lekawa ME. “Management of the Trauma Patient.” Surgery: 6th Edition The University of California Irvine Manual of Surgery. Current Clinical Strategies Publishing, Inc., S.E. Wilson, Editor, 2006
4. Lekawa ME, Hoyt DB: “The Abdomen,” In: Acute Care Surgery. Chapter 29, McGraw-Hill (pub), Gracias VH, McKenney HG, Reilly PM, Velmahos G (eds), Sept 2008
6. Lekawa ME, Hoyt DB: Case Study: University of California, Irvine. In: The Surgical Hospitalist Program Management Guide. Chapter 19, (211-217, ), HC Pro Inc. (pub), Maa J, Nelson J (editors), April 2009
7. Lekawa ME, Hoyt DB: “Trauma of the Colon and Rectum.” In: The ASCRS Textbook of Colon and Rectal Surgery. Chapter 26. Springer Science & Business Media, Inc (pubs). Beck DE, Roberts PL, Saclarides TJ, Senagore AJ, Stamos MJ, Wexner SD (editors). June 2011
Journal Articles (Peer-Reviewed)
1. Margulies DR, Lekawa ME, Bjerke S, Hiatt JR, Shabot MM. Surgical intensive care in the nonagenarian. No basis for age discrimination. Arch Surg 1993;128:753-758. PMID: 8317956.
2. Shabot MM, Vinson D, Lekawa ME, Ridgeway MG, LoBue M, Margulies DR. Prediction of adverse ICU events by automated measurement of severity of illness and intensity of interventions. Crit Care Med 1993:21:4.S174.
3. Lekawa ME, Shapiro S, Gordon L, Hiatt JR. The laparoscopic learning curve. Surg Laparos Endosc. 1995, Dec;5(6):455-8.
4. Kong LB, Lekawa ME, Navarro R, McGrath J, Cohen M, Margulies DR, Hiatt JR. Pedestrian-motor vehicle trauma: an analysis of injury profiles by age. JACS, 1996, Jan, 182:17-23.
5. Lekawa ME, Margulies DR, Leyerle BJ, Shabot MM. Tertiary surgical critical care for the 90’s. International Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing, 1996
6. Wallace WC, Cinat ME, Gornick WB, Lekawa ME, Di Stante A, Burchell SA, Wilson SE. Nosocomial infections in the SICU differs between trauma and surgical patients. Am Surg, 1999, Oct;65:987-990.
7. Kafie FE, Tessier DJ, Williams RA, Podnos YD, Cinat M, Lekawa M, Wilson SE. Serial abdominal closure technique (the "SAC" procedure): a novel method for delayed closure of the abdominal wall. Am Surg. 2003 Feb;69(2):102-
5. PMID: 12641347.
8. Chappell ET, Pare L, Dolich MO, Lekawa ME, Salepour M. Frameless Stereotaxy to Facilitate Anterolateral Thoracolumbar Surgery: Technique. Neurosurgery, 2005 Jan 56(1):110-116. PMID: 15799798.
9. Nastanski F, Gordon WI, Lekawa ME. Posttraumatic Paradoxical Fat Embolism to the Brain: A Case Report. J Trauma. 2005 Feb; 58(2):372-374. PMID: 15706203.
10. Deane LA, Suding PN, Lekawa ME, Narula N, McDougall EM. Sperm Granuloma of the Inguinal Vas Deferens Mimicking Recurrent Incarcerated Inguinal Hernia. J. Urology. 2007 Jun; 69(6):1209 e1 – e3. PMID: 17572223.
11. Barrios C, Tran T, Malinoski D, Lekawa M, Dolich M, Lush S, Hoyt DB, Cinat ME. Successful management of occult pneumothorax without tube thoracostomy despite positive pressure ventilation. Am Surg, 74(10): 968-961, 2008. PMID: 18942622.
12. Malinoski DJ, Hadjizacharia P, Salim A, Kim H, Dolich MO, Cinat ME, Barrios C, Lekawa ME, Hoyt DB. Elevated Serum Pancreatic Enzyme Levels After Hemorrhagic Shock Predict Organ Failure and Death. J Trauma. 2009;67(3):445-449. PMID: 19741384.
13. Kaiser M, Ahearn P, Barleben A, Kim H, Dolich M, Cinat M, Barrios C, Lekawa M, Hoyt D, Malinoski D. Early predictors of the Need for Emergent Surgery to Control Hemorrhage in Hypotensive Trauma Patients. Am Surg, Oct 2009; 75(10):986-990
14. Barrios C, Malinoski D, Dolich M, Lekawa M, Hoyt D, Cinat M. Utility of thoracic computed tomography after blunt trauma: when is chest radiograph enough? Am Surg. Oct. 2009; 75(10): 966-9. PMID: 198141426.
15. Malinoski DJ, Jafari F, Ewing T, Ardary C, Conniff H, Baje M, Kong A, Lekawa ME, Dolich MO, Cinat ME, Barrios C, Hoyt DB. Standard Prophylactic Enoxaparin Dosing Leads To Inadequate Anti-XA Levels And Increased Deep Venous Thrombosis Rates In Critically Ill Trauma And Surgical Patients. J Trauma, 2010; 68(4): 874–880. PMID: 203886282.
16. Kong AP, Barrios C, Salim A, Willis L, Cinat ME, Dolich MO, Lekawa ME, Malinoski DJ. A Multidisciplinary Organ Donor Council and Performance Improvement Initiative Can Help Save Lives. Am Surg, Oct. 2010; 76(10): 1059-62. PMID: 21105609.
17. Kaiser M, Whealon M, Barrios C, Dobson S, Dolich MO, Lekawa ME, Malinoski DJ, Cinat ME, Hoyt DB. The Clinical Significance of Occult Thoracic Injury in Blunt Trauma Patients. Am Surg, Oct. 2010; 76(10): 1063-6. PMID: 21105610.
18. Kaiser ML, Whealon M, Barrios C, Malinoski D, Lekawa M, Dolich M, Hoyt D, Cinat ME. Risk factors for trauma on thoracic computed tomography scans in blunt trauma patients with normal chest X-Ray. Arch Surg, 2011; 146(4): 456-63. PMID: 215022456.
19. Barrios C, Pham J, Malinoski DM, Dolich MO, Lekawa ME, Cinat ME. Ability of a chest X-ray and an abdominal computed tomography scan to identify traumatic thoracic injury. Am J Surg, December 2010; 200(6): 741-4. PMID: 21146014.
20. Malinoski DJ, Ewing T, Nguyen D, Le T, Cui E, Patel MS, Kong A, Dolich M, Barrios C, Cinat M, Lekawa M, Salim A. The natural history of upper extremity deep venous thrombosis in critically ill surgical and trauma patients: what is the role of anticoagulation? J Trauma, 2011 August; 71(2):316-22. PMID: 21825933.
21. Barleben A, Jafari F, Rose J, Dolich MO, Malinoski DJ, Lekawa ME, Hoyt DB, Cinat ME. Implementation of a cost-saving algorithm for pelvic radiographs in blunt trauma victims. J Trauma, Sept 2011; 71(3):582-4. PMID: 21908996.
22. Jafari F, Sloan B, Nguyen B, Barrios C, Kong A, Cinat M, Dolich M, Lekawa M, Hoyt DB. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Trauma Patients Who Cannot Receive Chemical Prophylaxis. Injury epub Oct 2011
23. Malinoski DJ, Ewing T, Patel M, Jafari F, Sloan B, Nguyen B, Barrios C, Kong A, Cinat M, Dolich M, Lekawa M, Hoyt DB. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Trauma Patients Who Cannot Receive Chemical Prophylaxis. Injury 2013 Jan;44(1):80-5 / November 2011, Epub ahead of print. PMID: 22047757.
24. Patel MS, Ewing T, Kong A, Nguyen D, Lau C, Barrios C, Cinat M, Dolich M, Lekawa ME, Malinoski DJ. Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism in Critically Ill Non-trauma Surgical Patients Who Cannot Receive Chemical Prophylaxis. Am J Surg, 2013 September;206(3): 300-306. Epub 2013 Jun 4. PMID: 23759695.
25. Finigan R, Pham J, Mendoza R, Lekawa M, Dolich M, Kong A, Bernal N, Lush S, Barrios C. Risk for contrast-induced nephropathy in elderly trauma patients. Am Surg. 2012 Oct;78(10):1114-7. PMID: 23025953.
26. Kaiser ML, Whealon MD, Barrios C, Kong AP, Lekawa ME, Dolich MO. The current role of magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing cervical spine injury in blunt trauma patients with negative computed tomography scan. Am Surg. 2012 Oct, 78(10):1156-60. PMID: 23025962.
27. Ewing T, Barrios C, Lau C, Patel MS, Cui E, Garcia SD, Kong A, Lotfipour S, Lekawa M, Malinoski D. Predictors of hazardous drinking behavior in 1,340 adult trauma patients: a computerized alcohol screening and intervention study. J. Am Coll Surg. 2012 Oct 2;215(4):489-95. PMID: 22683248.
28. Pinette W, Barrios C, Pham J, Kong A, Dolich M, Lekawa M. A Comparison of Thoracic CT and Abdominal CT for the Identification of Thoracic Blunt Trauma. Am J Surg, 2012 Dec;204(6): 927-31. PMID: 23231934.
29. Malinoski D, Ewing T, Bhakta A, Schutz R, Imayanagita B, Casas T, Woo N, Margulies D, Barrios C, Lekawa M, Chung R, Bukur M, Kong A. Which Central Venous Catheters Have the Highest Rate of Catheter Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Prospective Analysis of 2128 Catheter-Days in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. Trauma, 2013 Feb;74(2):454-60; discussion 461-2.
30. Dhillon RS, Barrios C, Pham J, Bernal N, Kong A, Lekawa M, Dolich M. Seatbelt sign as an indication for four-vessel computed tomography angiogram of the neck to diagnose blunt carotid artery and other cervical vascular injuries. Am Surg, 2013 Oct;79(10): 1001-4.
Phase ½ Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) in Closed, Severe Head Injury (Sponsor: Abela Pharmaceuticals) Principal Investigator, Grant: $240,000 (November 2008-present)
Multicenter trial of hypertonic resuscitation in two populations of trauma patients. (Sponsor: Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium). Co-Investigator, Grant: $10 million throughout 10 centers, five years and multiple studies (2006-present)
Linezolid in the Treatment of Subjects with Nosocomial Pneumonia Proven to be Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Protocol#: A5951001 (Sponsor: Pfizer). Co-Investigator, Grant: $72,760.00 (April 2005 to 2007)
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Assess the Effect of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin (Epoetin alfa; PROCRIT®) on Functional Outcomes in Anemic, Critically Ill, Trauma Subjects. Protocol# PR04-15-001 (Sponsor: OrthoBiotech Pharmaceutical) Co-Investigator, Grant: $140,000.00 (May 2006 to Present)
A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Determine the Efficacy And Safety of Epoetin Alfa in Critically Ill Subjects. Protocol # EPO-ICU-002 (Sponsor: Johnson & Johnson). Co-Investigator, Grant: $240,000.00 (April 2004 – September 2006)
Flexibility in administration of Arixtra for prevention of symptomatic venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgery (Organon Sanofi-Synthelabo, L.L.C.) Principal Investigator (2002-2004)
A double blind, placebo controlled, parallel, multi-center study on extended vte prophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients with prolonged immobilization (Aventis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.). Principal Investigator (2002-2004)
Optimization of dose and confirmation of safety and efficacy of H 376-95 compared to coumadin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following total knee arthroplasty (AstraZeneca). Principal Investigator (2000-2002)
An open label, randomized, parallel-group study to confirm the safety and efficacy of Procrit (epoetin alpha) administered perioperatively vs. the standard of care in blood conservation in subjects undergoing major elective spine surgery (Ortho Biotech) Principal Investigator (2002-2004)
A double-blind, efficacy and safety study of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor H 376/95 vs. standard therapy in patients with acute symptomatic deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism (AstraZeneca). Principal Investigator (2001-02)
A phase 2 study to determine the efficacy and safety of Silvestat in subjects with acute lung injury (Eli Lilly). Principal Investigator (1999-01)
A randomized, double-blind, comparative study of H 376/95 and Enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following total hip arthroplasty (AstraZeneca). Principal Investigator (2000-2002)
A randomized, double-blind, comparative study of H 376/95 and Warfarin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following total knee arthroplasty (AstraZeneca). Principal Investigator (2000-present)
A comparative, parallel, open label, randomized multicenter phase IIIb-IV study of Synercid I.V. 705 mg/kg q8h vs. Vancomycin I.V. 1gm. Q 12h for a maximum of 14 days in the treatment of nosocomial staphylococcus spp. infections in severely ill in-patients. Co-investigator (1999-2001)
A multicenter phase III study to assess the safety and efficacy of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in patients with hemorrhage due to trauma. (XOMA Corporation). Principal Investigator (1998-1999)
A Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of a Single Intravenous Dose of CP-101, 606 in Subjects with Severe Head Injury (Pfizer). Principal Investigator (1999-2000)
Efficacy of rHuEPO in the critically ill patient: A randomized double-blind, placebo controlled trial (Ortho Biotech Inc). Co-investigator, (1999-2001)
Efficacy and safety of antimicrobials in the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. Co-investigator, (1998-2000)
Randomized placebo-controlled trial of MAK 195F in sepsis with hyperinflammatory response (Knoll Pharmaceuticals). Principle Investigator (1998-99)
Ascending dose, Parallel group, double-blind, placebo controlled dose finding study of rhuMab CD18 in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Co-investigator, (1998-99)
Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and immunological effects of two treatment regimens of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in patients with hemorrhage due to trauma (XOMA Corporation). Principle investigator (1997-98)
A double blind, placebo controlled study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Procysteine in the treatment of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (Transcend Therapeutics). Principle Investigator, (1997-98)
Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) for treatment of patients with hemorrhage due to trauma (XOMA Corporation). Principle investigator, (1996-97)
Nitric Oxide in the treatment of ARDS: Controlled double blinded study. Co-investigator, (1997-98)
Multi-centered study of endoscopic ultrasound in the evaluation of suspected common bile duct stones. Co-investigator, (1996-98)
The role of nitric oxide in the adult respiratory distress syndrome: NIH BRSG SO7RR05468-29. Co-investigator, (1993-94)
Pacific Coast Surgical Association
Fellow, American College of Surgeons
Fellow, Southern California Chapter, American College of Sur
American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma, ATLS Stat
Society of Critical Care Medicine
The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma