Chung Lee

Adjunct Professor, Pathology
School of Medicine

Ph.D., West Virginia University, 1969, Physiology/Nutrition

Phone: (949) 824-2728

University of California, Irvine
Med Sci I, Rm. D440
Mail Code: 4800
Irvine, CA 92697

Prostate cancer, TGF-beta signaling
1995 Wu Jieping Medical Award, the Chinese Urological Association
2003 Distinguished Preceptor Award, American Foundation for Urologic Disease/American Urological Association
2007 Lifetime Achievement Award, World Chinese Urological Society/American Urological Association
2013 Meritorious Achievement Award, Society for Basic Urological Research/American Urological Association
Appointments 1975-1977 Ann Shih, Ph.D.
1977-1978 Steven Hung, Ph.D.
1979-1982 Gail Prins, Ph.D., NIH Postdoctoral Fellow F32 HD06175
1979-1982 Charmayne Jesik, Ph.D.
1981-1982 Linda Swanson, Ph.D.
1983-1985 Yvonne Tsai, Ph.D.
1987-1990 Edward Sherwood, Ph.D., NIH Postdoctoral Fellow F32 DK08204
1991-1994 Julia Sensibar, Ph.D., AFUD Postdoctoral Scholar
1992-1998 Kenneth Ilio, D.V.M, Ph.D., AFUD Postdoctoral Scholar
1994-1996 Annette Kassen, Ph.D.
1994-1997 Jeffery Nemeth, Ph.D., NIH Training Grant T32 DK07706
1995-1997 Marilyn Lamm, Ph.D.
1995-2001 Lynn Janulis, Ph.D., NIH Training Grant T32 DK07706 (1995-1998), AFUD Scholar (1999-2002)
1997-1999 Marcus Cronauer, Ph.D., Kanning Foundation-Lions Club Fellowship, Luxembourg.
2001-2004 Qiang Zhang, Ph.D., AFUD Scholar (2003-2005)
2002-2005 Ki-Ho Lee, Ph.D., AFUD Scholar (2004-2006)
Publications 1. Lee C, McBee JL Jr, Horvath DJ (1967) Dietary protein level and swine carcass traits. Journal of Animal Science 26:490-494
2. Lee C, Horvath DJ (1969) Management of the meadow vole (Microtus Pennsylvanicus). Laboratory Animal Care 19:88-91
3. Lee C, Horvath DJ, Metcalf RW, Inskeep EK (1970) Ovulation in Microtus Pennsylvanicus in a laboratory environment. Laboratory Animal Care 20:1098-1102
4. Lee C, Weiss R, Horvath DJ (1970) Effects of nitrogen fertilization on the thyroid function of rats fed 40% orchard grass diets. Journal of Nutrition 100:1 121-1126
5. Lee C, Jacobson HI (1971) Uterine estrogen receptor in rats during pubescence and the estrous cycle. Endocrinology 88:596-601
6. Lee C, Keyes PL, Jacobson HI (1971) Estrogen receptor in the rabbit corpus luteum. Science 173:1032-1033
7. Limpaphayom K, Lee C, Jacobson HI, King TM (1971) Estrogen receptor in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 111:1064-1068
8. Lee C, Oyasu R (1974) Direct action of estradiol on rat mammary tumors. Journal of National Cancer Institute 52:283-284
9. Lee C (1974) Uterine responsiveness to estrogen in 4-day cycling and in estrogen-primed ovariectomized rats as assessed by uptake and incorporation of 3H-leucine. Endocrinology 95:1754-¬1758
10. Lee C, Oyasu R, Chen C (1975) In vitro interaction of estrogen and prolactin on hormone-dependent rat mammary tumors. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 148:224-226
11. Hopp ML, Matsumoto M, Wendell B, Lee C, Oyasu R (1976) Suppressive role of indole on 2-¬acetylaminofluorene hepatotoxicity. Cancer Research 36:234-239
12 Hopp ML, Matsumoto M, Lee C, Oyasu R (1977) Absorption and protein binding of N-2¬fluorenylacetamide and its metabolites in the bladder of the rabbit. Journal of National Cancer Institute 58:281-285
13. Grayhack JT, Wendel EF, Lee C, Oliver L, Cohen E (1977) Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in human prostatic fluid: an aid in recognition of malignancy? Journal of Urology 118:204-208
14. Grayhack JT, Wendel EF, Lee C, Oliver L (1977) Analysis of prostatic fluid in prostatic disease. Cancer Treatment Report 61:205-21 0
15. Lee C, Murphy JJ, Diamond CA, Rafferty NS, Oyasu R (1977) Alternate fluctuations of leucine and thymidine incorporation by mammary tumors in rats during the estrous cycle. Cancer Research 37:3301-3305
16. Lee C, Shih A, Oyasu R (1978) Multiple autotransplantation of rat mammary tumors induced by 7,12¬dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Journal of National Cancer Institute 60:473-476
17. Shih A, Lee C (1978) Fluctuations in levels of cytosol and nuclear estrogen receptors in rat mammary tumors during the estrous cycle. Endocrinology 102:420-425
18. Stanisic T, Sadlowski R, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1978) Partial inhibition of castration-induced ventral prostate regression with actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Investigative Urology 16:19-22
19. Stanisic T, Sadlowski RA, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1978) Elevated rate of 3H-uridine incorporation in regressing rat ventral prostate. Investigative Urology 16:15-18
20. Lee C, Oliver L, Coe EL, Oyasu R (1979) Lactate dehydrogenase in normal mammary glands and in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats. Journal of National Cancer Institute 62:193-199
21. Grayhack JT, Wendel EF, Oliver L, Lee C (1979) Analysis of specific proteins in prostatic fluid for detecting prostatic malignancy. Journal of Urology 121:295-299
22. Sharer WC, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1979) Partial inhibition of castration-induced involution in rat prostate by chloroquine: a preliminary observation. Investigative Urology 17-.135-137
23. Grayhack JT, Lee C, Kolbusz W, Oliver L (1980) Detection of carcinoma of the prostate utilizing biochemical observations. Cancer 45:1896-1901
24. Holland JM, Lee C (1980) Effects of pituitary grafts on testosterone stimulated growth of rat prostate. Biology of Reproduction 22:351-355
25. Engel G, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1980) Acid ribonuclease in rat prostate during castration-induced involution. Biology of Reproduction 22:827-831
26. Lee C (1980) Levels of cyclic nucleotides in autotransplanted 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat mammary tumors during their growth and regression. Journal of National Cancer Institute 65:1029¬1032
27. Grayhack JT, Lee C, Oliver L, Schaeffer AJ, Wendel EF (1980) Biochemical profiles of prostatic fluid from normal and diseased prostate glands. Prostate 1:227-237
28. Lee C, Jesik C, Uke E, Falkowski W, Grayhack JT (1981) Prostatic neoplasia: clinical and experimental. In: Nagasawa H, Abe K, eds. Hormone related tumors. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press/Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp 261-285
29. Lee C, Jesik C, Falkowski W, Uke E, Grayhack JT (1981) Testicular neoplasia: clinical and experimental. In: Nagasawa H, Abe K, eds. Hormone related tumors, Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press/Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp 289-311
30. Lee C, Lapin V, Oyasu R, Battifora H (1981) Effect of ovariectomy on serially transplanted rat mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. European Journal of Cancer 17:801¬808
31. Lee C (1981) Physiology of castration-induced regression in rat prostate. In: Murphy G, Sandberg AA, Karr JP, eds. The prostatic cell: structure and function. New York: Alan R Liss Inc, pp 145-159
32. Grayhack JT, Lee C (1981) Evaluation of prostatic fluid in prostatic pathology. In: Murphy G, Sandberg AA, Karr JP, eds. The prostatic cell: structure and function. New York: Alan R Liss Inc, pp 231-246
33. Bockrath JM, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1981) Incorporation and release of tritiated leucine in rat prostate during castration-induced involution. Investigative Urology 19:169-175
34. Lee C, Prins GS, Henneberry MO, Grayhack JT (1981) Effect of estradiol on the rat prostate in the presence and absence of testosterone and pituitary. Journal of Andrology 2:293-299
35. Prins GS, Lee C (1982) Influence of prolactin-producing pituitary grafts on the in vivo uptake, distribution and disappearance of [3H]testosterone and [3H]dihydrotestosterone by the rat prostate lobes. Endocrinology 110:920-925
36. Kolbusz WE, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1982) Delay of castration-induced regression in rat prostate by pituitary homografts. Journal of Urology 127:581-584
37. Tanabe ET, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1982) Activities of cathepsin D in rat prostate during castration induced involution. Journal of Urology 127:826-828
38. Jesik CJ, Holland JM, Lee C (1982) An anatomic and histologic study of the rat prostate. Prostate 3:81-97
39. Lee TM, Lee C, Moltz H (1982) Prolactin in liver cytosol and pheromonal emission in the rat. Physiol Behav 28:631-633
40. Prins GS, Lee C (1982) Comparison of prostatic response to pituitary grafts in castrate rats treated with testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. Journal of Andrology 3:305-312
41. Prins GS, Lee C (1982) Effect of protease inhibitors on androgen receptor analysis in rat prostate cytosol. Steroids 40:189-201
42. Lee TM, Halpern B, Lee C, Moltz H (1982) Reduced prolactin binding to liver membranes during pheromonal emission in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 17:1149-1154
43. Uke E, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1983) The effect of the cis hydroxyproline on ventral prostatic growth in rats. Journal of Urology 129:171-174
44. Shih-Hoellwarth A, Lee C, Schwartz NB (1983) Endocrine consequences of portacaval anastomosis in female rats. American Journal of Physiology 245 (Endocrinology and Metabolism 8):E288-E293
45. Kaplan L, Lee C, Schaeffer AJ (1983) Effect of castration on experimental bacterial prostatitis in rats. Prostate 4:625-630
46. Lee C, Jesik C (1983) Effects of castration, estrogen and androgen administration. In: Hinman F Jr, ed. Benign prostatic hypertrophy. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp 229-234
47. Prins GS, Lee C (1983) Biphasic response of the rat lateral prostate to increasing levels of serum prolactin. Biology of Reproduction 29:938-945
48. Tsai YC, Harrison HH, Lee C, Daufeldt JA, Oliver L, Grayhack JT (1984) Systematic characterization of human prostatic fluid proteins with two-dimensional electrophoresis. Clinical Chemistry 30:2026¬2030
49. Assimos D, Smith C, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1984) Action of prolactin in regressing prostate: independent of action mediated by androgen receptors. Prostate 5:589-595
50. Lee C, Jesik C, Mangkornkanok M, Sensibar J, Lee SH (1985) Estrogen receptors and hormone responsiveness in serially transplanted mammary tumors in rats. In: Pertschuk LP, Lee SH, eds. Localization of putative steroid receptors, vol 1, experimental systems. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc, pp 85-93
51. Smith C, Assimos D, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1985) Metabolic action of prolactin in regressing prostate-. independent of androgen action. Prostate 6:49-59
52. Guevara J Jr, Herbert BH, Lee C (1985) Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of human prostatic fluid proteins. Cancer Research 45:1766-1771
53. Lee C, Hopkins D, Holland JM (1985) Reduction in prostatic concentration of endogenous dihydrotestosterone in rats by hyperprolactinemia. Prostate 6:361-367
54. Lee C, Tsai Y, Harrison HH, Sensibar J (1985) Proteins of the rat prostate. I. preliminary characterization by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Prostate 7:171-182
55. Blum MD, Bahnson RR, Lee C, Deschler TW, Grayhack JT (1985) Estimation of canine prostatic size by in vivo ultrasound and volumetric measurements. Journal of Urology 133:1082-1086
56. Grayhack JT, Lee C, Brand W (1985) The effect of testicular irradiation on established BPH in the dog: evidence of a non-steroidal testicular factor for BPH maintenance. Journal of Urology 134:1276-1281
57. Johnson AH, Merchant DJ, Lee C, Norman J, Bourgeois N (1985) A search for differentiation markers in prostatic fluid components with two-dimensional electrophoresis and multiple protein detectors. Prostate 7:429-439
58. Tseng CC, Tseng EE, Sensibar JA, Lee C (1986) Acid phosphatase in the rat prostate: comparison with other organs. Prostate 9:57-64
59. Lee C, Bahnson RR, Blum MD, Anderson DP, Bockrath JJ (1986) Water imbibition in the rat prostate during castration-induced regression. Prostate 9:77-84
60. Lee C, Tsai Y, Sensibar J, Oliver L, Grayhack JT (1986) Two-dimensional characterization of prostatic acid phosphatase, prostatic specific antigen and prostate binding protein in expressed prostatic fluid. Prostate 9:135-146.
61. Lee C, Holland JM (1987) Anatomy, histology, ultrastructure (correlation with function), prostate, rat. In: Jones TC, Mohr U, Hunt RD, eds. Monographs on pathology of laboratory animals. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp 239-251.
62. Lee C (1987) Gross dissection of three lobes of the rat prostate. In: Coffey DS, Cunha G, Karr J, eds. Current concepts and approaches to the study of prostate cancer. New York: Alan R Liss Inc, pp 577¬582.
63. Salit M, Chase J, Kubey W, Holmes C, Pearson F, Kroes R, Sensibar J, Lee C (1987) Partial characterization of peritoneal dialysis effluents by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In: Khanna R, Nolph KD, Prowant B, Twardowski ZJ, Oreopoulos DG, eds. Advances in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 13-17.
64. Lee C, Sensibar J (1987) Proteins of the rat prostate. II. synthesis of new proteins in the ventral lobe during castration-induced regression. Journal of Urology 138:903-908.
65. Gordon ED, Mora R, Meredith SC, Lee C, Lindquist SL (1987) Eukaryotic initiation factor 4D, the hypusine-containing protein, is conserved among eukaryotes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 262:16585-16589
66. Kozlowski JM, McEwan R, Keer H, Sensibar J, Sherwood ER 111, Lee C, Grayhack JT, Albini A, Martin GR (1988) Prostate cancer and the invasive phenotype: application of new in vivo and in vitro approaches. In: Fidler IJ, Nicholson G, eds. Tumor progression and metastasis. New York: Alan R Liss Inc, pp 189-231
67. Lee C, Hu S-E, Lok MS, Chen YC, Tseng CC (1988) Microcomputer-based image analysis systems for two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. BioTechniques 6:216-224
68. Lee C, Grayhack JT (1989) Overall perspectives on the role of prolactin in the prostate. In: Nagasawa H, ed. Prolactin and lesions in breast, uterus, and prostate. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc, p 153
69. Lee C, Grayhack JT (1989) Prolactin and the prostate in animal models. In: Nagasawa H, ed. Prolactin and lesions in breast, uterus, and prostate. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press Inc, pp 177-186
70. Lee C, Sherwood ER, Sensibar JA, Berg LA, Chen YC, Tseng CC (1989) Profile matching and profile subtraction: application of computer-based image analysis system for two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. BioTechniques 7:374-378
71. Sherwood ER, Berg LA, McEwan RN, Pasciak RM, Kozlowski JM, Lee C (1989) Two-dimensional protein profiles of cultured stromal and epithelial cells from hyperplastic human prostate. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 40:201-214
72. Lee C, Kaefer M, Zhao ZW, Kroes R, Berg L, Liu X, Sensibar J (1989) Demonstration of the role of prostate specific antigen in semen liquefaction by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Journal of Andrology 10:432-438.
73. Sherwood ER, Ford TR, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1990) Therapeutic efficacy of recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha in an experimental model of human prostatic carcinoma. Journal of Biological Response Modifiers 9:44-52
74. Sensibar JA, Alger B, Tseng A, Berg L, Lee C (1990) Proteins of the rat prostate. III. Effect of testosterone on protein synthesis by the ventral prostate of castrated rats. Journal of Urology 143:161-¬166.
75. Sherwood ER, Berg LA, Mitchell NJ, McNeal JE, Kozlowski JM, Lee C (1990) Differential cytokeratin expression in normal, hyperplastic and malignant epithelial cells from human prostate. Journal of Urology 143:167-171.
76. Keer HN, Kozlowski JM, Tsai YC, Lee C, McEwan RN, Grayhack JT. (1990) Elevated transferrin receptor content in human prostate cancer cell lines assessed in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Urology 143:381-385
77. Sensibar JA, Liu X, Patai B, Alger B, Lee C (1990) Characterization of castration-induced cell death in the rat prostate by immunohistochemical localization of cathepsin D. Prostate 16:263-276
78. Dalton DP, Lee C, Huprikar S, Chmiel JS, Grayhack JT (1990) Non-androgenic role of testis in enhancing ventral prostate growth in rats. Prostate 16:225-233
79. Lee C, Sherwood ER, Kozlowski JM, Grayhack JT (1990) Role of stromal-epithelial cell interaction in benign prostatic hyperplasia. In: The Foundation for Prostate Research, ed. Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Tokyo: Kimbara Publishing Co, pp 16-26
80. Lee C, Sensibar JA, Dudek SM, Hiipakka RA, Liao S (1990) Prostatic ductal system in rats: Regional variation in morphological and functional activities. Biology of Reproduction 43:1079-1086
81. Sensibar JA, Griswold MD, Sylvester SR, Buttyan R, Bardin CW, Cheng CY, Dudek S, Lee C (1991) Prostatic ductal system in rats: Regional variation in localization of an androgen-repressed gene product, sulfated glycoprotein-2. Endocrinology 128:2091-2102
82. Hofer DR, Sherwood ER, Bromberg WD, Mendelsohn J, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1991) Autonomous growth of androgen-independent human prostatic carcinoma cells: Role of transforming growth factor ?. Cancer Research 51:2780-2785
83. Wang J-M, McKenna KE, McVary KT, Lee C (1991) Requirement of innervation for maintenance of structural and functional integrity in the rat prostate. Biology of Reproduction 44:1171-1176.
84. Lee C, Hofer DR, Sherwood ER, Kozlowski JM (1991) Transforming growth factor alpha: a potential autocrine growth regulator in prostatic carcinoma. In: Karr JP, Coffey DS, Smith RG, Tindall DJ, eds. Molecular and Cellular Biology of Prostate Cancer. New York: Plenum Press, pp 147-156.
85. Kozlowski JM, Sherwood ER, Fong CJ, Lee C (1991) The impact of androgen, extracellular matrix, and stroma upon proliferation and differentiation of benign and malignant prostate epithelial cells. In: Karr JP, Coffey DS, Smith RG, Tindall DJ, eds. Molecular and Cellular Biology of Prostate Cancer. New York: Plenum Press, pp 27-50
86. Wang J-M, McKenna KE, Lee C (1991) Determination of prostatic secretion in rats: Effect of neurotransmitters and testosterone. Prostate 18:289-301
87. Sherwood ER, Theyer G, Steiner G, Berg LA, Kozlowski JM, Lee C (1991) Differential expression of specific cytokeratin polypeptides in the basal and luminal epithelia of the human prostate. Prostate 18:303-314
88. Kim J, Sherwood ER, Sutkowski D, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1991) Inhibition of prostatic tumor cell proliferation by suramin: Alterations in TGF alpha-mediated autocrine growth regulation and cell cycle distribution. Journal of Urology 146:171-176
89. Kozlowski JM, Sutkowski DM, Liu X, Fong C-J, Sherwood ER, Lee C (1991) Growth requirements of human prostate cancers in vitro and in vivo. In: Rosen S, Lee C, Tallman MS, eds. Innovations in Urologic Oncology: Selected Papers from a Northwestern University Cancer Center Symposium. Chicago: Precept Press, pp 13-37
90. Rosen S, Lee C, Tallman MS, eds (1991) Innovations in Urologic Oncology: Selected Papers from a Northwestern University Cancer Center Symposium. Chicago: Precept Press
91. Fong C-J, Sherwood ER, Abu-Jawdeh GM, Yokoo H, Bauer KD, Kozlowski JM, Lee C (1991) Reconstituted basement membrane promotes morphological and functional differentiation of primary human prostatic epithelial cells. Prostate 19:221-235
92. Griffiths K, Akaza H, Eaton C, Habib F, Lee C, Robel P, Sciarra F (1991) Hormones, growth factors and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In: Cockett ATK, Aso Y, Chatelain C, Denis L, Griffiths K, Khoury S, Murphy G, eds. The International Consultation on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), Proceedings. World Health Organization, pp 25-49
93. Del Priore G, Chatterton RT, Lee C, Silver R, Berg L, Lee MJ. (1991) Comparison of mononuclear cell proteins and plasma proteins before and during parturition by two-dimensional electrophoresis, Journal of Perinatal Medicine 19:373-377.
94. Schacht MJ, Niederberger CS, Garnett JE, Sensibar JA, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1992) A local direct effect of pituitary graft on growth of the lateral prostate in rats. Prostate 20:51-58
95. Lee C, Sensibar JA, Sinha AA, Wilson MJ (1992) Induction of specific gelatinolytic proteinases in the lateral prostate of rats by ectopic pituitary grafts. Biology of Reproduction 46:671-679
96. Chang SY, Yu DS, Sherwood ER, Kozlowski JM, Lee C (1992) Inhibitory effects of suramin on a human renal cell carcinoma line, causing nephrogenic hepatic dysfunction. Journal of Urology 147:1147-1150
97. Darras FS, Lee C, Huprikar S, Rademaker AW, Grayhack JT (1992) Evidence for a non-androgenic role of testis and epididymis in androgen-supported growth of the rat ventral prostate. Journal of Urology 148:432-440
98. Sherwood ER, Fong C-J, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1992) Basic fibroblast growth factor: A potential mediator of stromal growth in the human prostate. Endocrinology 130:2955-2963
99. Fong C-J, Sherwood ER, Braun EJ, Berg LA, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1992) Regulation of prostatic carcinoma cell proliferation and secretary activity by extracellular matrix and stromal secretions. Prostate 21:121-131
100. Sutkowski DM, Fong C-J, Sensibar JA, Rademaker AW, Sherwood ER, Kozlowski J M, Lee C (1992) Interaction of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-?1 in human prostatic epithelial cells in culture. Prostate 21:133-143
101. Fong C-J, Sherwood ER, Mendelsohn J, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1992) Epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody inhibits constitutive receptor phosphorylation, reduces autonomous growth, and sensitizes androgen-independent prostatic carcinoma cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cancer Research 52:5887-5892
102. Fong C-J, Sutkowski DM, Kozlowski JM, Lee C (1992) Utilization of Boyden chamber to further characterize in vitro migration and invasion of benign and malignant human prostatic epithelial cells. Invasion and Metastasis 12:264-274
103. Cheng E, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1993) Chapter 5: Endocrinology of the prostate. In: Lepor H, ed. Prostate Diseases, 1st ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders pp. 57-71.
104. Lee C, Shevrin DH, Kozlowski JM (1993) In vivo and in vitro approaches to study metastasis in human prostatic cancer. Cancer and Metastasis Reviews 12:21-28.
105. Lim DJ, Liu XL, Sutkowski DM, Braun EJ, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1993) Growth of an androgen sensitive human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, in nude mice. Prostate 22:109-118
106. Sensibar JA, Qian Y, Griswold MD, Sylvester SR, Bardin CW, Cheng CY, Lee C (1993) Localization and molecular heterogeneity of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (Clusterin) among ventral prostate, seminal vesicle, testis, and epididymis of rats. Biology of Reproduction 49:233-242
107. Sutkowski DM, Kasjanski RZ, Sensibar JA, Ney KG, Lim DJ, Kozlowski JM, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1993) Effect of spermatocele fluid on growth of human prostatic cells in culture. Journal of Andrology 14:233-239
108. Wu HHH, Kawamata H, Kawai K, Lee C, Oyasu R (1993) Immunohistochemical localization of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor ? in male rat accessory sex organs. Journal of Urology 150: 990-993
109. Fong C-J, Sutkowski DM, Braun EJ, Bauer KD, Sherwood ER, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1993) Effect of retinoic acid on the proliferation and secretary activity of androgen-responsive prostatic carcinoma cells. Journal of Urology 149:1190-1194.
110. Grayhack JT, Lee C, Kozlowski JM (1993) Pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia. In: Romas NA, Vaughan ED, eds., Alternate Methods in the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp 13-25.
111. Lee C, Bushman W. (1993) Prostatic duct biology. Prospectives 3:1-4.
112. McVary KT, Razzaq A, Lee C, Venegas MF, Rademaker A, McKenna KE. (1994) Growth of the rat prostate gland is facilitated by the autonomic nervous system. Biology of Reproduction 51:99-107.
113. Carlin IC, Marachie J, Venegas MF, Schaeffer AJ, Shaw N, Hass GM, Rademaker AW, Lee C, Grayhack JT. (1994) PR92 antigen in human prostate fluid: Elevated levels in prostate cancer. Prostate 25:156-161.
114. Lee C (1994) Commentary on the requirement of the testis in establishing the sensitivity of the canine prostate to develop BPH. Journal of Urology 152:830.
115. Lee C, Goolsby CL, Sensibar JA. (1994) Cell cycle kinetics in rat prostatic epithelia: Nuclear migration during G2 phase. Journal of Urology 152:2294-2299.
116. Gu Y, Jow GM, Moulton BC, Lee C, Sensibar JA, Park-Sarge OK, Chen TJ, Gibori G. (1994) Apoptosis in decidual tissue regression and reorganization. Endocrinology 135:1272-1279
117. Lee C, Sutkowski DM, Sensibar JA, Zelner D, Kim I, Amsel I, Shaw N, Prins GS, Kozlowski JM. (1995) Regulation of proliferation and production of prostate specific antigen in androgen sensitive prostatic cancer cells, LNCaP, by dihydrotestosterone. Endocrinology 136:796-803.
118. Lee C, Kozlowski JM, Grayhack JT. (1995) Etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Urologic Clinics of North America 22:237-246.
119. Sherwood ER, Lee C. (1995) Epidermal growth factor-related peptides and the epidermal growth factor receptor in normal and malignant prostate. World Journal of Urology 13:290-296.
120. Sensibar JA, Sutkowski DM, Raffo T, Buttyan R, Griswold MD, Sylvester SR, Kozlowski JM, Lee C. (1995) Prevention of cell death induced by tumor necrosis factor-a in LNCaP cells by overexpression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (clusterin). Cancer Research 55:2431-2437.
121. Tsai LC, Chen YL, Lee C, Chen HM, Chang ZN, Hung MW, Chao PL, Lin JY. (1995) Growth suppression of human colorectal carcinoma in nude mice by monoclonal antibody C27-abrin A chain conjugate. Dis Colon Rectum 38:1067-1074.
122. Ilio KY, Sensibar JA, Lee C (1995) Effect of TGF-?l, TGF-? and EGF on cell proliferation and cell death in rat ventral prostate epithelial cells in culture. Journal of Andrology 16:482-490.
123. Kozlowski JM, Keer HN, Gaylis FD, Lee C. (1995) Increased urokinase-plasminogen activator (u-PA) expression correlates with the aggressive phenotype in human prostate cancer cells. In: Glas¬-Greenwalt P. Fibrolysis in Disease: The Malignant Process, Interventions in Thrombogenic Mechanisms, and Novel Treatment Modalities. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 41-50.
124. Kim IY, Zelner DJ, Sensibar JA, Ahn HJ, Park L, Lee C. (1996) Modulation of sensitivity to transforming growth factor-?l in an androgen responsive prostatic cancer cell line, LNCaP, by dihydrotestosterone. Experimental Cell Research 222:103-110
125. Lee C, Qian Y, Sensibar JA, Harrison HH (1996) Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins. In: Thomas JA (ed) Endocrine Methods, New York: Academic Press, pp 203-219.
126. Kassen A, Sutkowski DM, Ahn HJ, Sensibar JA, Kozlowski J M, Lee C. (1996) Stromal cells of human prostate: Initial isolation and characterization. Prostate 28:89-97.
127. Kim IY, Ahn HJ, Zelner DJ, Shaw JW, Sensibar JA, Kim J H, Kato M, Lee C. (1996) Genetic change in transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) receptor type I gene correlates with insensitivity to TGF-?1 in human prostate cancer cells. Cancer Research 56:44-48
128. Kim IY, Ahn HJ, Zelner DJ, Park L, Sensibar JA, Lee C. (1996) Expression and localization of transforming growth factor-? receptors type I and II in the rat ventral prostate during regression. Molecular Endocrinology 10:107-115.
129. Nemeth JA, Lee C (1996) The prostatic ductal system in rats: Regional variation in stromal organization. Prostate 28:124-128.
130. Kim IY, Kim JH, Zelner DJ, Ahn HJ, Sensibar JA, Lee C. (1996) Transforming growth factor-?1 is a mediator of androgen-regulated growth arrest in an androgen-responsive prostatic cancer cell line, LNCaP. Endocrinology 137:991-999.
131. Kaefer M, Audia JE, Bruchovsky N, Goode RL, Hsiao KC, Leibovitch IY, Krushinski JH, Lee C, Steidle CP, Sutkowski DM, Neubauer BL. (1996) Characterization of type I 5?-reductase activity in DU145 human prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 58:195-205.
132. Lee C. (1996) Role of androgen in prostate growth and regression: Stromal-epithelial interaction. Prostate Supplement 6:52-56.
133. Cheng EY, Grammatopoulos T, Lee C, Decker R, Sensibar J, Kaplan WE, Firlit CF. (1996) Angiotensin II and bFGF induce neonatal bladder stromal cell mitogenesis. Journal of Urology 156:593-597.
134. Griffiths K, Coffey D, Cockett A, di Sant'agnese A, Ichikawa T, Krieg M, Lee C, McKeehan W, Schalken J, Sciarra F, Steiner G, Sugimura Y, Yamanaka H. (1996) The regulation of prostatic growth. In: Cockett ATK, Khoury S, Aso Y, Chaetelain C, Denis L, Griffiths K, Murphy (eds), The 3rd International Consultation on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Proceedings 3, Maury-Euroliveres, South Africa: Scientific Communication International Ltd., pp 73-115.
135. Kim IY, Ahn HJ, Zelner DJ, Shaw JW, Lang S, Kato M, Oefelein MG, Miyazono K, Kozlowski JM, Lee C. (1996) Loss of expression of transforming growth factor-? receptors type I and type II correlates with tumor grade in human prostate cancer tissues. Clinical Cancer Research 2:1255-1261.
136. Qian Y, Sensibar JA, Zelner DJ, Schaeffer AJ, Finlay JA, Rittenhouse HG, Lee C. (1997) Formation of complex between prostate specific antigen and antichymotrypsin in serum but not in prostatic fluid. Clinical Chemistry 43:352-359.
137. Lee C, Kozlowski JM, Grayhack JT. (1997) Intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling benign prostatic growth. Prostate 31:131-138.
138. Lee C. (1997) Cellular interactions in prostatic cancer. British Journal of Urology 79:(Supplement 1):21-27.
139. Okamoto M, Lee C, Oyasu R. (1997) Interleukin-6 as a paracrine and autocrine growth factor in human prostatic carcinoma cells in vitro. Cancer Research 57:141-146.
140. Lee C. (1997) Biology of the prostatic ductal system. In: Prostate: Clinical and Basic Aspects. R. Nez (ed.) Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press pp. 53-71.
141. Zhang X, Lee C, Olsson C, Buttyan R, Ma F. (1997) Modification and characterization of a prostatic tissue specific transgene promoter. Chinese Journal of Urology 18:93-96.
142. Zhang X, Lee C, Olsson C, Buttyan R, Ma F. (1997) Action of protooncogene bcl-2 in the development of BPH. Chinese Journal of Urology 18-.97-99.
143. Zhang X, Lee C, Rubin M, Olsson C, Ma F, Buttyan R. (1997) Neoplastic stimulation of C-myc on prostate gland development in transgenic mice. Chinese Journal of Urology 18:149-152.
144. Zhang X, Chen MW, Ng A, Ng PY, Lee C, Rubin M, Olsson CA, Buttyan R. (1997) Abnormal prostate development in C3(l)-bcl-2 transgenic mice. Prostate 32:16-26.
145. Cheng EY, Lee C, Decker RS, Sensibar JA, Lang S, Kaplan WE, Maizels M, Firlit CF. (1997) Captopril (an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibits obstructive changes in the neonatal rabbit bladder. Urology 50:465-471.
146. Palmer LS, Lee C, Decker RS, Lang S, Kaplan WE, Firlit CF, Cheng EY. (1997) The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin 11 receptor antagonism on obstructed rat bladder. Journal of Urology 158:1100-1104.
147. Lamm MLG, Long DD, Goodwin SM, Lee C. (1997) Transforming growth factor-?l inhibits membrane association of protein kinase C? in a human prostate cancer cell line, PC3. Endocrinology 138:4657-4664.
148. Nemeth JA, Sensibar JA, White RR, Zelner DJ, Kim IY, Lee C. (1997) Prostatic ductal system in rats: Tissue-specific expression and regional variation in stromal distribution of transforming growth factor¬-?l. Prostate 33:64-71.
149. Gann PH, Chatterton R, Vogelsong K, Grayhack JT, Lee C. (1997) Epidermal growth factor-related peptides in human prostatic fluid: Source of variability in assay results. Prostate 32:234-240.
150. Steinberg J, Oyasu R, Lang S, Rademaker A, Lee C, Kozlowski JM, Sensibar JA. (1997) Intracellular levels of SGP-2 (Clusterin) correlate with tumor grade in prostate cancer. Clinical Cancer Research 3:1707-1711.
151. Okamoto M, Lee C, Oyasu R. (1997) Autocrine effect of androgen on proliferation of an androgen responsive prostatic carcinoma cell line, LNCaP: Role of interleukin-6. Endocrinology 138:5071-5074.
152. llio KY, Nemeth JA, Lang S, Lee C. (1998) The primary culture of rat prostate basal cells. Journal of Andrology 19:718-724.
153. Sherwood ER, Van Dongen JL, Wood CG, Liao S, Kozlowski JM, Lee C. (1998) Epidermal growth factor receptor activation in androgen-independent but not androgen-stimulated growth of human prostatic carcinoma cells. British Journal of Cancer 77:855-861.
154. Lamm MLG, Sintich SM, Lee C. (1998) A proliferative effect of transforming growth factor-?1 on a human prostate cancer cell line, TSU-Prl. Endocrinology 139:787-790.
155. Grayhack JT, Sensibar JA, Ilio KY, Kasjanski RZ, Kozlowski JM, Lee C. (1998) Synergistic action of steroids and spermatocele fluid on in vitro proliferation of prostate stroma. Journal of Urology 159:2202-2209.
156. Nemeth JA, Zelner DJ, Lang S, Lee C. (1998) Keratinocyte growth factor in the rat ventral prostate: Androgen-independent expression. Journal of Endocrinology 156:115-125.
157. Janulis L, Grayhack JT, Lee C.(1998) Endocrinology of the prostate. In Lapor H. (ed), Prostate Diseases, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders pp 58-74.
158. McVary KT, McKanna KE, Lee C. (1998) Prostate innervation. Prostate Supplement 8:2-13.
159. Kundu S, Kim IY, Zelner D, Janulis L, Goodwin S, Engel J, Lee C. (1998) Loss of expression of transforming growth factor-? type II receptor is associated with an aggressive growth pattern in a murine renal carcinoma cell line, Renca. Journal of Urology 160:1883-1888.
160. Grayhack JT, Kozlowski JM, Lee C. (1998) The pathogenesis of BPH: A proposed hypothesis and critical evaluation. Journal of Urology 160:2375-2380.
161. Kim IY, Zelner DJ, Lee C. (1998) The conventional transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) receptor type I is not required for TGF-?l signaling in a human prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP. Experimental Cell Research 241:151-160.
162. Kim IY, Ahn HJ, Lang S, Oefelein MG, Oyasu R, Kozlowski JM, Lee C. (1998) Loss of expression of transforming growth factor-? receptors is associated with poor prognosis in prostate cancer patients. Clinical Cancer Research 4:1625-1630.
163. Griffiths K, Cockett ATK, Coffey D, di Sant'Agnese A, Krieg M, Lee C, McKeehan W, Neal DE, Partin A, Schalken J. (1998) Regulation of prostatic growth. Proceedings of the 4th International Consultation on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), Paris, July 2-5, 1997. Plymbridge Distributors LTD, Plymouth, UK. pp 83-128.
164. Sensibar JA, Pruden SJ, Kasjanski RZ, Rademaker A, Lee C, Grayhack JT, Kozlowski JM. (1999) Differential growth rates in stromal cultures of the human prostate derived from varying patient ages. Prostate 38:110-117.
165. Sintich S, Steinberg J, Kozlowski JM, Lee C, Pruden S, Sayeed S, Sensibar JA. (1999) Cytotoxic sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-? in prostatic cancer cells is regulated by extracellular levels of SGP-2 (Clusterin). Prostate 39:87-93.
166. Janulis J, Lee C. (1999) The prostate gland. Knobil E, Neil J. (eds) Encyclopedia of Reproduction. Volume 4. New York: Academic Press p. 77-85.
167. Gann PH, Klein GK, Chatterton RT, Ellman AE, Grayhack JT, Nadler R, Lee C. (1999) Growth factors in expressed prostatic fluid from men with prostate cancer, BPH and clinically normal prostates. Prostate 40:248-255.
168. Engel JD, Kundu SD, Yang T, Lang S, Goodwin S, Janulis L, Chang J, Kim SJ, Lee C. (1999) Introduction of transforming growth factor ? type II receptor restores tumor suppressor activity in murine renal carcinoma (Renca) cells. Urology 54:164-170.
169. Sintich SM, Lamm MLG, Sensibar JA, Lee C. (1999) Transforming growth factor-?1 induced proliferation of the prostate cancer cell line, TSU-Pr1: The role of platelet-derived growth factor. Endocrinology 140:3411-3415.
170. Lee C, Sintich SM, Matthews EP, Shah AH, Kundu SD, Perry KT, Cho JS, Ilio KY, Cronauer MV, Janulis L, Sensibar JA. (1999) Transforming growth factor-? in benign and malignant prostate. Prostate 39:285-290.
171. Lee C. (1999) Basic scientists in urology departments, Special Communication. Journal of Urology 161:1578-1579.
172. Cheng EY, Decker RS, Lee C. (1999) Role of angiotensin II in bladder smooth muscle growth and function. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;462:183-191.
173. Ilio KY, Grayhack JT, Lee C. (2000) Experimental cryptorchidism inhibit growth of the rat ventral prostate. Journal of Andrology 21:438-443.
174. Ilio KY, Nemeth JA, Sensibar JA, Lang S, Lee C. (2000) The prostatic ductal system in rats: Changes in regional distribution of ECM proteins during castration-induced regression. Prostate 43:3-10.
175. Kundu SD, Kim IY, Yang T, Doglio L, Lang S, Zhang X, Buttyan R, Kim SJ, Chang J, Cai X, Wang Z, Lee C. (2000) Absence of proximal duct apoptosis in the ventral prostate of transgenic mice carrying C3(1)-TGF-? type II dominant receptor. Prostate 43:118-124.
176. Janulis L, Nemeth JA, Yang T, Lang S, Lee C. (2000) Prostatic luminal cell differentiation and prostatic steroid-binding protein (PBP) gene expression are differentially affected by neonatal castration. Prostate 43:195-204.
177. Kong X, Zeng L, Yang Y, Xia T, Gu F, Guo Y, Lee C. (2000) Immunohistochemical characterization of stromal nodules in benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Prostate Journal 2:199-204.
178. Bartsch G, Klocker H, Ackermann R, DiSant’Agnese PA, Cussenot O, Lee C, Narayan P, Nelson J, Salgaller ML, Shulman CC, Steiner MS. (2000) In Murphy G, Khoury S, Partin A, Denis L. (eds.) Prostate Cancer, 2nd International consultation on Prostate Cancer, Plymouth, UK: Plymbridge Distributors Ltd. pp 57-136.
179. Matthews E, Yang T, Janulis L, Goodwin S, Kundu SD, Karpus WJ, Lee C. (2000) Down regulation of TGF-?1 production restores immunogenicity in prostate cancer cells. British Journal of Cancer 83:519-525.
180. Kassen A, Sensibar JA, Sintich SM, Kozlowski JM, Lee C. (2000) Autocrine effect of DHT on basic FGF signaling and cell proliferation in LNCaP cells: Role of heparin/heparan degrading enzymes. Prostate 44:124-132.
181. Zhang X, Lee C, Ng PY, Rubin M, Shabsigh A, Buttyan R. (2000) Prostatic neoplasia in transgenic mice with prostate-derived overexpression of the c-myc oncoprotein. Prostate 43:278-285.
182. Lee C. (2000) The future of academic urologists, Special Communication. Journal of Urology 163:1888-1889.
183. Lee C, Janulis L, Ilio K, Shah A, Park I, Kim S, Cryns V, Pins M, Bergan R. (2000) In Vitro Models of Prostate Apoptosis: Clusterin as an Antiapoptotic Mediator. Prostate Supplement 9:21-24.
184. Shah AH, Lee C. (2000) TGF-?-based immunotherapy for cancer: Breaching the tumor firewall. Prostate 45:167-172.
185. Liang L, Zhang Q, Lee C, Zhang Z, Gou Y. (2000) The role of clusterin in preventing bladder carcinoma cell death. Chinese Journal of Urology 21:418-420.
186. Lee C, Kozlowski JM. (2001) Prostate cancer In: DeGroot LJ, Jameson JL. (eds) Endocrinology 4th edition. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, pp. 2368-2377.
187. Liang L, Zhang Q, Lee C, Wang C, Ting Y, Zhang Z, Gou Y. (2001) Study of the antiapoptosis mechanism of clusterin in EJ bladder carcinoma cell line. Chinese Journal of Urology 22:29-31.
188. Brown TR, Lee C. (2001) Meeting Report: Conference summary on prostate growth and aging, 13-15 September 2000. Prostate 48:54-65.
189. Ilio KY, Park II, Pins MR, Kozlowski JM, Lee C. (2001) Apoptotic activity of Doxazosin on prostate stroma in vitro is mediated through an autocrine expression of TGF-?1. Prostate 48:131-135.
190. Liang L, Zhang Q, Lee C, Zeng L, Ting Y, Zhang Z, Gou Y. (2001) Clusterin expression in EJ cells and its antiapoptotic mechanism. Chinese Journal of Urology 22:499-501.
191. Lee C, Cockett A, Cussenot O, Griffiths K, Isaacs W, Schalken J, Buttyan R, Prins G, Steiner G. (2001) Regulation of prostate growth. In: Chatelain C, Denis L, Foo KT, Khoury S, McConnell J. (eds.) Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Plymbridge Distributors Ltd, Plymouth, UK. pp 81-106.
192. Gann PH, Chatterton RT, Lee C. (2001) Peptide growth factors as biomarkers of prostate cancer risk. Epidemiol Rev 23:67-71.
193. Kramer G, Steiner GE, Handisurya A, Stix U, Haitel A, Knere B, Gessl A, Lee C, Marberger M. (2002) Increased expression of lymphocyte-derived cytokines in benign hyperplastic prostate tissue, identification of the producing cell types, and effect of differentially expressed cytokines stromal cell proliferation. Prostate 52:43-58.
194. Wu AJ, Park II, Zhaung L, Lee C. (2002) Response to a lethal dose of heat shock by a transient up-regulation of clusterin expression followed by down-regulation and apoptosis in prostate and bladder cancer cells. Prostate 53:277-285.
195. Zhou W, Janulis L, Park II, Lee C. (2002) A novel anti-proliferative property of clusterin in prostate cancer cells. Life Sciences 72:11-21.
196. Shah AH, Tabayoyong WB, Kim SJ, van Parijs L, Kimm S, Lee C. (2002) Reconstitution of lethally irradiated mice with TGF-? insensitive bone marrow leads to myeloid expansion and inflammatory disease. Journal of Immunology 169:3485-3491.
197. Shah AH, Tabayoyong WB, Kundu SD, Kim SJ, van Parijs L, Liu VC, Kwon E, Greenberg NM, Lee C. (2002) Suppression of tumor metastasis by blockade of TGF-ß signaling in bone marrow cells through a retroviral mediated gene therapy in mice. Cancer Research 62:7135-7138.
198. Zhou L, Yang X, Liang L, Zhang Q, Lee C, Zhang Z, Nah Y, Gou Y. (2002) Expression and significance of clusterin in prostate neoplasm. Chinese Journal of Urology 23: 181-183.
199. Liang L, Zhang Q, Chen L, Lee C, Ting Y, Zhang Z, Gou Y. (2002) The inhibiting mechanism of MMC on bladder cancer cell line EJ. Chinese Journal of Urology 23:370-371.
200. Liu YQ, Jovanovic B, Pins M, Lee C, Bergan RC. (2002) Over expression of endoglin in human prostate cancer suppresses cell detachment, migration and invasion. Oncogene 21:8272-8281.
201. Shah AH, Lee C. (2002) Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) as a negative tumor marker: A novel approach in cancer immunotherapy. In: Barrett JC, Imai K, Kakizoe T, Shively JE, Yamaguchi K (eds.) Basic and Clinical Research on Tumor Markers. Princess Takamatsu Cancer Research Fund, Tokyo, pp 10-15.
202. Huang X, Lee C. (2003) From TGF-ß to Cancer Therapy. Current Drug Targets 4:243-250.
203. Doll JA, Stellmach VM, Bouck NP, Bergh ARJ, Lee C, Abramson LP, Cornwell ML, Pins MR, Borensztajn J, Crawford SE. (2003) Hormone-sensitive anti-angiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor regulates the stromal vasculature and epithelium of the prostate. Nature Medicine 9(6):774-780
204. Lee C. (2003) Research enterprise in urology: A message to the urology leadership. Journal of Urology 170:189-191.
205. Zhou W, Park I, Pins M, Kozlowski JM, Jovanovic B, Zhang J, Lee C, Ilio K. (2003) Dual Regulation of Proliferation and Growth Arrest in Prostatic Stromal Cells by Transforming Growth Factor-?1. Endocrinology 144:4280-4284.
206. Steiner GE, Newman ME, Paikl D, Stix U, Memaran-Dagda N, Lee C, Marberger MJ. (2003) Expression and function of pro-inflammatory interleukin IL-17 and Il-17 receptor in normal, benign hyperplasia, and malignant prostate. Prostate 56:171-182.
207. Huang X, Lee C. (2003) Regulation of stromal proliferation, growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in benign prostatic hyperplasia by TGF-ß. Frontiers in Bioscience 8:s740-749.
208. Grayhack JT, Smith ND, Ilio K, Wambi C, Kasjanski R, Crawford SE, Doll JA, Wang Z, Lee C, Kozlowski JE. (2004) Pigment epithelium-derived factor, a human testis epididymis secretory product, promotes human prostate stromal cell growth in culture. Journal of Urology 171:434-438.
209. Pins MR, Fiadjoe JE, Korley F, Wong M, Rademaker AW, Jovanovic B, Yoo TK, Kozlowski JM, Raji A, Yang XJ, Lee C. (2004) Clusterin as a possible predictor for biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy with intermediate Gleason scores: A preliminary report. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Disease 7:243-248.
210. Shim JH, Danielpour D, Lee C, Kim YS, Bahk YY, Yoo TK. (2004) Proteome profile changes during transdifferentiation of NRP-152 rat prostate basal epithelial cells. Molecules and Cells 17:108-116.
211. Zhang L, Shi J, Feng J, Klocker H, Lee C, Zhang J. (2004) Type IV collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9) in prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer & Prostatic Disease 7:327-332.
212. Zhang Q, Rubenstein JN, Liu VC, Park I, Jang T, Lee C. (2005) Restoration of expression of transforming growth factor-ß type ?? receptor in murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) cells by 5-Aza-2’-deoxycytidine. Life Sciences 76:1159-1166.
213. Zhang Q, Yang X, Pins M, Liu V, Jovanovic B, Kuzel T, Kim S-J, Van Parijs L, Greenberg NM, Guo Y, Lee C. (2005) Adoptive transfer of tumor reactive TGF-ß insensitive CD8+ T cells: Eradication of autologous mouse prostate cancer. Cancer Research 65:1761-1769.
214. Zhang Q, Rubenstein JN, Jang TL, Yang X, Pins M, Jovanovic B, Kim SJ, Park I, Liu V, Lee C. (2005) Insensitivity to transforming growth factor-? signaling is resulted from promoter methylation of cognate receptors in human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP). Molecular Endocrinology 19:2390-2399.
215. Zhang Q, Jang TL, Yang X, Park I, Meyers RE, Kundu S, Pins M, Jovanovic B, Kuzel T, Kim S-J, Van Parijs L, Smith N, Wong L, Greenberg NM, Guo Y, Lee C. (2006) Infiltration of tumors reactive transforming growth factor-beta insensitive CD8+ T cells into tumor parenchyma is associated with apoptosis and rejection of tumor cells Prostate 66:235-247.
216. Zhang Q, Jang TL, Zhou W, Yang X, Pins M, Smith N, Xin D, Liang L, GuoY, Lee C. (2006) Leader sequence triggers and enhances multiple functions of clusterin and is instrumental in the progression of human prostate cancer in vivo and in vitro. British Journal of Urology International 98:452-460.
217. Zhang Q, Kundu SD, Yang X, Pins M, Jovanovic B, Meyer R, Kim S-J, Greenberg NM, Kuzel T, Meagher R, Guo Y, Lee C. (2006) Blockade of TGF-ß signaling in tumor-reactive CD8+ T cells activates the anti-tumor immune response cycle. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 5:1733-1743.
218. Lee C, Shah A, Liu VC, Park II, Wong LY, Huang X, Huang L, Zhou VW, Medler T, Kundu SD, Zhang Q, Smith ND. (2007) Adoptive Transfer of Tumor Reactive TGF-ß Insensitive CD8+ T cells for Cancer Therapy. In: Jakowlew S. (Ed.) TGF-ß in Cancer Therapy, Volume II. Cancer treatment and Therapy. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ. Pp 165-174.
219. Wang CY, Shi JD, Yan CH, Wu Q, Klocker H, Park I, Lee C, Zhang J. (2007) Development of a cell isolation method for human prostatic smooth muscle cells based on cell type specific activation of the SM22 gene promoter. British Journal of Urology International 99:183-188.
220. Liu VC, Wong LW, Jang T, Shah AH, Park I, Yang X, Zhang Q, Lonning S, Teicher BA, Lee C. (2007) Tumor evasion of the immune system by converting CD4+CD25- T cells into CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells: role of tumor-derived TGF-ß. Journal of Immunology 178:2883–2892.
221. Wang FL, Qin WJ, Wen WH, Tian F, Song B, Zhang Q, Lee C, Zhong WD, Guo YL, Wang H. (2007) TGF-beta insensitive dendritic cells: an efficient vaccine for murine prostate cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 56:1785-1793.
222. Lee GT, Hong JH, Kwak C, Woo J, Liu V, Lee C, Kim IY. (2007) Effect of dominant negative transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II on cytotoxic activity of RAW 264.7, a murine macrophage cell line. Cancer Res 67:6717-6724.
223. Youm YH, Yang H, YoonYD, Kim DY, Lee C, Yoo TK. (2007) Doxazosin-induced clusterin expression and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. Urologic Oncology 25: 483-488.
224. Paunesku T, Vogt S, Lai B, Maser J, Stojicevic N, Thurn KT, Osipo C, Liu H, Legnini D, Wang Z, Lee C, Woloschak GE. (2007) Intracellular distribution of TiO2-DNA oligonucleotide nanoconjugates directed to nucleolus and mitochondria indicates sequence specificity. Nano Lett 7:596-601.
225. Reid RR, Roy N, Mogford JE, Zimmerman H, Lee C, Mustoe TA. (2007) Reduction of hypertrophic scar via retroviral delivery of a dominant negative TGF-beta receptor II. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 60:64-72; Discussion 73-74.
226. Wu Q, Zhou Y, Chen L, Shi J, Wang C-Y, Miao L, Klocker H, Park I, Lee C, Zhang J. (2008) Benign prostatic hyperplasia epithelial cell line BPH-1 induces aromatase expression in prostatic stromal cells via prostaglandin E2. Journal of Endocrinology 195:89-94.
227. Kundu SD, Lee C, Billips BK, Habermacher GM, Zhang Q, Liu V, Wong LY, Klumpp DJ, Thumbikat P. (2008) The toll-like receptor pathway: A novel mechanism of infection-induced carcinogenesis of prostate epithelial cells. Prostate 68:223-229.
228. Perry K, Wong L, Liu V, Park I, Zhang Q, Renjen V, Huang X, Smith ND, Jovanovic B, Lonning S, Teicher BA, Lee C. (2008) Treatment of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) insensitive mouse Renca tumor by TGF-? elimination. Urology 72:225-229.
229. Zhang Z, Duan L, Du X, Ma H, Park I, Lee C, Zhang J, Shi J. (2008) The proliferative effect of estradiol on human prostate stromal cells is mediated through activation of ERK. Prostate 68:508-516.
230. Luo X, Zhang Q, Liu V, Xia Z, Pothoven KL, Lee C. (2008) Cutting Edge: TGF-ß Induced expression of Foxp3 in T cells is mediated through inactivation of ERK. Journal of Immunology 180:2757-2761.
231. Qin W, Tian F, Wang F, Song B, Wang H, Zhang Q, Jovanovic B, Liang L, Guo Y, Smith N, Lee C. (2008) Adoptive transfer of tumor reactive TGF-? insensitive cytolytic T cells for the treatment of established mouse Renca tumors. Urology 72:943-947.
232. Wu Q, Shi J, Chen L, Wang CY, Park I, Lee C, Zhang J. (2008) Regulation of proliferation and differentiation of prostatic stromal cells by oestradiol through prostatic epithelial cells in a paracrine manner. British Journal of Urology International 101:497-502.
233. Lee C. (2008) Book Review: Prostate Cancer: Biology, Genetics, and the New Therapeutics, 2nd Edition. Humana Press Inc. Chung, Leland W. K., Isaacs, William B., Simons, Jonathan W., (eds). Doody's Review Service (on-line)
234. Tian F, Wang L, Qin W, Wang F, Song B, Li Y, Wen W, Zhang Z, Zhu K, Zhang Q, Lee C, Zhong W, Guo Y, Wang H. (2008) Vaccination with transforming growth factor-beta insensitive dendritic cells suppresses pulmonary metastases of renal carcinoma in mice. Cancer Letter 271:333-341.
235. Zhang Q, Helfand BT, Jang TL, Zhu LJ, Chen L, Yang XJ, Kozlowski J, Smith N, Kundu SD, Yang G, Raji AA, Javonovic B, Pins M, Lindholm P, Guo Y, Catalona WJ, Lee C. (2009) NF-kB-Mediated Transforming Growth Factor-?-Induced Expression of Vimentin is an Independent Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy. Clinical Cancer Res 15:3557-3567.
236. Zhou Y, Xiao X-Q, Chen L-F, Yang R, Shi J-D, Du X-L, Klocker H, Park I, Lee C, Zhang J. (2009) Proliferation and phenotypic changes of stromal cells in response to varying estrogen/androgen levels in castrated rats. Asian Journal of Andrology 11:451-459.
237. Park II, Zhang Q, Liu V, Kozlowski JM, Zhang J, Lee C. (2009) 17ß-estradiol at low concentrations acts through distinct pathways in normal versus BPH-derived prostate stromal cells. Endocrinology 150:4594-5605.
238. Zhang Z, Wang L, Mei M, Zhu Y, Du X, Lee C, Park I, Zhang J, Shi J. (2010) Both nongenomic and genomic effects are involved in estradiol’s enhancing the phenotype of smooth muscle cells in cultured prostate stromal cells. Prostate 70:317-332.
239. Wang L, Wen W, Yuan J, Helfand B, Li Y, Shi C, Tian F, Zheng J, Wang F, Chen L, Liang L, Zhou L, Lee C, Chen Z,
GuoY, Wang H, Zhang Q, Qin W (2010) Immunotherapy for Human Renal Cell Carcinoma by Adoptive Transfer of Autologous Transforming Growth Factor ß–Insensitive CD8+ T Cells. Clinical Cancer Research 16:164-173.
240. Miao L, Shi J, Wang C-J, Zhu Y, Du X, Jiao H, Mo Z, Klocker H, Lee C, Zhang J. (2010) Estrogen receptor-related receptor a mediates up-regulation of aromatase expression by prostaglandin E2 in prostate stromal cells. Molecular Endocrinology 24:1175-1186
241. Fitchev PP, Wcislak SM, Lee C, Bergh A, Brendler CB, Stellmach VM, Crawford SE, Mavroudis CD, Cornwell ML, Doll JA. (2010) Thrombospondin-1 Regulates the Normal Prostate In Vivo Through Angiogenesis and TGF-ß Activation. Labrotory Investigation 90:1078-1090
242. Yu N, Kozlowski JM, Park II, Chen L, Zhang Q, Xu D, Doll JA, Crawford SE, Brendler CB, Lee C. (2010) Over-expression of transforming growth factor ß1 in malignant prostate cells is partly caused by a runaway of TGF-ß1 auto-induction mediated through a defective recruitment of protein phosphatase 2A by TGF-ß type I receptor. Urology 76(6):1519.e8-13
243. Mo L, Zhang J, Shi J, Xuan Q, Yang X, Qin M, Lee C, Klocker H, Li QQ, Mo Z. (2010) Human kallikrein 7 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like changes in prostate carcinoma cells: a role in prostate cancer invasion and progression. Anticancer Research :3413-20
244. Zhang Q, Chen L, Helfand BT, Zhu LJ, Kozlowski J, Minn A, Jang T, Yang XJ, Javonovic B, Guo Y, Lonning S, Harper J, Teicher BA, Yu N, Brendler C, Wang J, Catalona WJ, Lee C. (2011) Transforming Growth Factor-ß-induced DNA methyltransferase contributes to aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes and predicts biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy PloS ONE 6:e25168.
245. Hu Z, Gupta J, Zhang Z, Gerseny H, Berg A, Chen YJ, Zhang Z, Du H, Brendler CB, Xiao X, Pienta KJ, Guise T, Lee C, Stern PH, Stock S, Seth P. Systemic Delivery of Oncolytic Adenoviruses Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-b Inhibits Established Bone Metastasis in a Prostate Cancer Mouse Model. Human Gene Therapy 23:871–882.
246. Lee C, Zhang Q, Kozlowski J, Brendler C., Mercola D, Dash A. (2013) Natural products and TGF-ß signaling Current Cancer Drug Targets 13(5):500-505.
247. Lee C, Zhang Q, Zi X, Dash A, Soares MB, Rahmatpanah F, Jia Z, McClelland M, Mercola D. (2012) TGF-ß mediated DNA methylation in prostate cancer. Translational Andrology and Urology 1:78-88.
248. Lee C, Zhang Q, Dash A, Zi X, Rahmatpanah F, Jia Z, McLelland M, Mercola D. (2014) Role of the adjacent stroma cells in prostate cancer development and progression: Synergy between TGF-? and IGF signaling. BioMed Internation (Submitted)
249. Wu L, Runkle C, Jin HJ, Yu J, Li J, Yang X, Kuzel T, Lee C, Yu J. (2013) CCN3/NOV gene expression in human prostate cancer is directly suppressed by the androgen receptor. Oncogene. 2013 (In Press)
250. Principe DR, Doll JA, Bauer J, Jung B, Munshi HG, Bartholin L, Pasche B, Lee C, Grippo PJ. (2014) TGF-?: Duality of
function between tumor prevention and carcinogenesis. JNCI (In Press)
251. Zhang Q, Yu N, Lee C. (2014) Mysteries of TGF-beta paradox. Cancer Research (Submitted)
Grant 2/01/09-1/30/14 $13,500,000 NIH/NCI SPORE in prostate Cancer, 2P50CA090386A2 06-10
Other Experience Post-doctoral Fellow
Albany Medical College 1969—1971

Research Associate, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, Professor, Ameritus Professor
Northwestern University Medical School 1971—2014

Graduate Programs Cancer Biology

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Last updated 02/11/2014