Steven C. Cramer

Professor, Neurology
School of Medicine

Professor, Department Anatomy & Neurobiology; Professor, Department Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation; Associate Director, Institute for Clinical & Translational Science; Clinical Director, Sue & Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center, Anatomy & Neurobiology
School of Medicine

M.D., University of Southern California, 1988, Medicine

M.M.Sc, Harvard Medical School, 1997, Clinical Investigation

Phone: (714) 456-6876
Fax: (714) 456-8805

University of California, Irvine
UCI Medical Center, 101 The City Drive South
Building 53, Room 203
Mail Code: 4280
Orange, CA 92868

picture of Steven C. Cramer

CNS Repair in Humans; Stroke; Spinal Cord Injury; Motor System; Plasticity after CNS Injury; Brain Imaging
Publications 1: Barbay S, Plautz EJ, Zoubina E, Frost SB, Cramer SC, Nudo RJ. Effects of
Postinfarct Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein Antibody Treatment on Motor Recovery
and Motor Map Plasticity in Squirrel Monkeys. Stroke. 2015 Apr 30. pii:
STROKEAHA.114.008088. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25931462.

2: Riley JD, Fling BW, Cramer SC, Lin JJ. Altered organization of face-processing
networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2015 May;56(5):762-71. doi:
10.1111/epi.12976. Epub 2015 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 25823855.

3: Levy RM, Harvey RL, Kissela BM, Winstein CJ, Lutsep HL, Parrish TB, Cramer SC,
Venkatesan L. Epidural Electrical Stimulation for Stroke Rehabilitation: Results
of the Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Single-Blinded Everest Trial.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Mar 6. pii: 1545968315575613. [Epub ahead of
print] PubMed PMID: 25748452.

4: Rowe JB, Friedman N, Chan V, Cramer SC, Bachman M, Reinkensmeyer DJ. The
variable relationship between arm and hand use: a rationale for using finger
magnetometry to complement wrist accelerometry when measuring daily use of the
upper extremity. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:4087-90. doi:
10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944522. PubMed PMID: 25570890.

5: McCrimmon CM, King CE, Wang PT, Cramer SC, Nenadic Z, Do AH. Brain-controlled
functional electrical stimulation for lower-limb motor recovery in stroke
survivors. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014 Aug;2014:1247-50. doi:
10.1109/EMBC.2014.6943823. PubMed PMID: 25570191.

6: Burke Quinlan E, Dodakian L, See J, McKenzie A, Le V, Wojnowicz M, Shahbaba B,
Cramer SC. Neural function, injury, and stroke subtype predict treatment gains
after stroke. Ann Neurol. 2015 Jan;77(1):132-45. doi: 10.1002/ana.24309. Epub
2014 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 25382315; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4293339.

7: Zondervan DK, Augsburger R, Bodenhoefer B, Friedman N, Reinkensmeyer DJ,
Cramer SC. Machine-Based, Self-guided Home Therapy for Individuals With Severe
Arm Impairment After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Neurorehabil Neural
Repair. 2014 Oct 1. pii: 1545968314550368. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID:

8: Dodakian L, Campbell Stewart J, Cramer SC. Motor imagery during movement
activates the brain more than movement alone after stroke: a pilot study. J
Rehabil Med. 2014 Oct;46(9):843-8. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1844. PubMed PMID:

9: Barton B, Treister A, Humphrey M, Abedi G, Cramer SC, Brewer AA. Paradoxical
visuomotor adaptation to reversed visual input is predicted by BDNF Val66Met
polymorphism. J Vis. 2014 Aug 7;14(9). pii: 4. doi: 10.1167/14.9.4. PubMed PMID:
25104829; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4125061.

10: Burke E, Dobkin BH, Noser EA, Enney LA, Cramer SC. Predictors and biomarkers
of treatment gains in a clinical stroke trial targeting the lower extremity.
Stroke. 2014 Aug;45(8):2379-84. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005436. Epub 2014 Jun
24. PubMed PMID: 25070961; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4129459.

11: Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Dunn EC, Mortero S, Devan WJ, Falcone GJ, Lee P, Holmes
AJ, Hollinshead MO, Roffman JL, Smoller JW, Rosand J, Cramer SC. Dopamine genetic
risk score predicts depressive symptoms in healthy adults and adults with
depression. PLoS One. 2014 May 16;9(5):e93772. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093772.
eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24834916; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4023941.

12: Burke E, Dodakian L, See J, McKenzie A, Riley JD, Le V, Cramer SC. A
multimodal approach to understanding motor impairment and disability after
stroke. J Neurol. 2014 Jun;261(6):1178-86. doi: 10.1007/s00415-014-7341-8. Epub
2014 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 24728337.

13: Milot MH, Spencer SJ, Chan V, Allington JP, Klein J, Chou C, Pearson-Fuhrhop
K, Bobrow JE, Reinkensmeyer DJ, Cramer SC. Corticospinal excitability as a
predictor of functional gains at the affected upper limb following robotic
training in chronic stroke survivors. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014
Nov-Dec;28(9):819-27. doi: 10.1177/1545968314527351. Epub 2014 Mar 18. PubMed
PMID: 24642382; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4167999.

14: Vu Q, Xie K, Eckert M, Zhao W, Cramer SC. Meta-analysis of preclinical
studies of mesenchymal stromal cells for ischemic stroke. Neurology. 2014 Apr
8;82(14):1277-86. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000278. Epub 2014 Mar 7. PubMed
PMID: 24610327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4001201.

15: Cramer SC, Hill MD; REGENESIS-LED Investigators. Human choriogonadotropin and
epoetin alfa in acute ischemic stroke patients (REGENESIS-LED trial). Int J
Stroke. 2014 Apr;9(3):321-7. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12260. Epub 2014 Mar 3. PubMed
PMID: 24588854.

16: Wu J, Srinivasan R, Kaur A, Cramer SC. Resting-state cortical connectivity
predicts motor skill acquisition. Neuroimage. 2014 May 1;91:84-90. doi:
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.01.026. Epub 2014 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 24473097; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3965590.

17: Savitz SI, Cramer SC, Wechsler L; STEPS 3 Consortium. Stem cells as an
emerging paradigm in stroke 3: enhancing the development of clinical trials.
Stroke. 2014 Feb;45(2):634-9. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003379. Epub 2013 Dec
24. Review. PubMed PMID: 24368562.

18: Milot MH, Spencer SJ, Chan V, Allington JP, Klein J, Chou C, Bobrow JE,
Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. A crossover pilot study evaluating the functional
outcomes of two different types of robotic movement training in chronic stroke
survivors using the arm exoskeleton BONES. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2013 Dec
19;10:112. doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-10-112. PubMed PMID: 24354476; PubMed Central
PMCID: PMC3878268.

19: Sharp KG, Gramer R, Butler L, Cramer SC, Hade E, Page SJ. Effect of
overground training augmented by mental practice on gait velocity in chronic,
incomplete spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Apr;95(4):615-21. doi:
10.1016/j.apmr.2013.11.016. Epub 2013 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 24342552; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3972328.

20: Chollet F, Cramer SC, Stinear C, Kappelle LJ, Baron JC, Weiller C, Azouvi P,
Hommel M, Sabatini U, Moulin T, Tardy J, Valenti M, Montgomery S, Adams H Jr.
Pharmacological therapies in post stroke recovery: recommendations for future
clinical trials. J Neurol. 2014 Aug;261(8):1461-8. doi:
10.1007/s00415-013-7172-z. Epub 2013 Nov 13. PubMed PMID: 24221642.

21: Stewart JC, Tran X, Cramer SC. Age-related variability in performance of a
motor action selection task is related to differences in brain function and
structure among older adults. Neuroimage. 2014 Feb 1;86:326-34. doi:
10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.10.016. Epub 2013 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 24125791; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3896569.

22: Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Cramer SC. Pharmacogenetics of neural injury recovery.
Pharmacogenomics. 2013 Oct;14(13):1635-43. doi: 10.2217/pgs.13.152. PubMed PMID:

23: Dodakian L, Sharp KG, See J, Abidi NS, Mai K, Fling BW, Le VH, Cramer SC.
Targeted engagement of a dorsal premotor circuit in the treatment of post-stroke
paresis. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013;33(1):13-24. doi: 10.3233/NRE-130923. PubMed
PMID: 23949026.

24: See J, Dodakian L, Chou C, Chan V, McKenzie A, Reinkensmeyer DJ, Cramer SC. A
standardized approach to the Fugl-Meyer assessment and its implications for
clinical trials. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Oct;27(8):732-41. doi:
10.1177/1545968313491000. Epub 2013 Jun 17. PubMed PMID: 23774125.

25: Eckert MA, Vu Q, Xie K, Yu J, Liao W, Cramer SC, Zhao W. Evidence for high
translational potential of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy to improve recovery
from ischemic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013 Sep;33(9):1322-34. doi:
10.1038/jcbfm.2013.91. Epub 2013 Jun 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 23756689; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3764389.

26: Hagerty MR, Isaacs J, Brasington L, Shupe L, Fetz EE, Cramer SC. Case study
of ecstatic meditation: fMRI and EEG evidence of self-stimulating a reward
system. Neural Plast. 2013;2013:653572. doi: 10.1155/2013/653572. Epub 2013 May
2. PubMed PMID: 23738149; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3659471.

27: Stewart JC, Cramer SC. Response to letter regarding article,
"patient-reported measures provide unique insights into motor function after
stroke". Stroke. 2013 Jul;44(7):e80. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001705. Epub 2013
Jun 4. PubMed PMID: 23735954.

28: Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Minton B, Acevedo D, Shahbaba B, Cramer SC. Genetic
variation in the human brain dopamine system influences motor learning and its
modulation by L-Dopa. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 17;8(4):e61197. doi:
10.1371/journal.pone.0061197. Print 2013. PubMed PMID: 23613810; PubMed Central
PMCID: PMC3629211.

29: Cramer SC, Abila B, Scott NE, Simeoni M, Enney LA; MAG111539 Study
Investigators. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of escalating
repeat doses of GSK249320 in patients with stroke. Stroke. 2013
May;44(5):1337-42. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.674366. Epub 2013 Mar 7. PubMed
PMID: 23471268.

30: Stewart JC, Cramer SC. Patient-reported measures provide unique insights into
motor function after stroke. Stroke. 2013 Apr;44(4):1111-6. doi:
10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.674671. Epub 2013 Feb 19. PubMed PMID: 23422082; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3609884.

31: Mousavi Hondori H, Khademi M, Dodakian L, Cramer SC, Lopes CV. A Spatial
Augmented Reality rehab system for post-stroke hand rehabilitation. Stud Health
Technol Inform. 2013;184:279-85. PubMed PMID: 23400171.

32: Do AH, Wang PT, King CE, Schombs A, Cramer SC, Nenadic Z. Brain-computer
interface controlled functional electrical stimulation device for foot drop due
to stroke. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:6414-7. doi:
10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347462. PubMed PMID: 23367397.

33: Burke E, Cramer SC. Biomarkers and predictors of restorative therapy effects
after stroke. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2013 Feb;13(2):329. doi:
10.1007/s11910-012-0329-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 23299824; PubMed Central PMCID:

34: Bernhardt J, Cramer SC. Giant steps for the science of stroke rehabilitation.
Int J Stroke. 2013 Jan;8(1):1-2. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12028. PubMed PMID: 23280259.

35: Lee JY, King C, Stradling D, Warren M, Nguyen D, Lee J, Riola MA, Montoya R,
Patel D, Le VH, Welbourne SJ, Cramer SC. Influence of hematoma location on acute
mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neuroimaging. 2014
Mar-Apr;24(2):131-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6569.2012.00766.x. Epub 2012 Dec 28.
PubMed PMID: 23279617; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3621007.

36: Chang EY, Chang EH, Cragg S, Cramer SC. Predictors of Gains During Inpatient
Rehabilitation in Patients with Stroke- A Review. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med.
2013;25(3-4):203-221. PubMed PMID: 25541570; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4274601.

37: McHughen SA, Cramer SC. The BDNF val(66)met polymorphism is not related to
motor function or short-term cortical plasticity in elderly subjects. Brain Res.
2013 Feb 7;1495:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.12.004. Epub 2012 Dec 13.
PubMed PMID: 23247064; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3552061.

38: Reinkensmeyer DJ, Wolbrecht ET, Chan V, Chou C, Cramer SC, Bobrow JE.
Comparison of three-dimensional, assist-as-needed robotic arm/hand movement
training provided with Pneu-WREX to conventional tabletop therapy after chronic
stroke. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Nov;91(11 Suppl 3):S232-41. doi:
10.1097/PHM.0b013e31826bce79. PubMed PMID: 23080039; PubMed Central PMCID:

39: Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Burke E, Cramer SC. The influence of genetic factors on
brain plasticity and recovery after neural injury. Curr Opin Neurol. 2012
Dec;25(6):682-8. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e32835a360a. Review. PubMed PMID:

40: Cramer SC, Stradling D, Brown DM, Carrillo-Nunez IM, Ciabarra A, Cummings M,
Dauben R, Lombardi DL, Patel N, Traynor EN, Waldman S, Miller K, Stratton SJ.
Organization of a United States county system for comprehensive acute stroke
care. Stroke. 2012 Apr;43(4):1089-93. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.635334. Epub
2012 Jan 26. PubMed PMID: 22282882; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3314728.

41: Cramer SC, Procaccio V; GAIN Americas; GAIN International Study
Investigators. Correlation between genetic polymorphisms and stroke recovery:
analysis of the GAIN Americas and GAIN International Studies. Eur J Neurol. 2012
May;19(5):718-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03615.x. Epub 2012 Jan 4. PubMed
PMID: 22221491.

42: Cramer SC. Improving outcomes after stroke by LEAPS (Locomotor Experience
Applied Post-Stroke) and bounds. Stroke. 2011 Dec;42(12):3659-60. doi:
10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.627992. Epub 2011 Oct 6. PubMed PMID: 21980201.

43: Cramer SC. An overview of therapies to promote repair of the brain after
stroke. Head Neck. 2011 Oct;33 Suppl 1:S5-7. doi: 10.1002/hed.21840. Epub 2011
Sep 7. Review. PubMed PMID: 21901776.

44: Nouri S, Cramer SC. Anatomy and physiology predict response to motor cortex
stimulation after stroke. Neurology. 2011 Sep 13;77(11):1076-83. doi:
10.1212/WNL.0b013e31822e1482. Epub 2011 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 21880996; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3265049.

45: Albers GW, Goldstein LB, Hess DC, Wechsler LR, Furie KL, Gorelick PB, Hurn P,
Liebeskind DS, Nogueira RG, Saver JL; STAIR VII Consortium. Stroke Treatment
Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations for maximizing the use of
intravenous thrombolytics and expanding treatment options with intra-arterial and
neuroprotective therapies. Stroke. 2011 Sep;42(9):2645-50. doi:
10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.618850. Epub 2011 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 21852620.

46: McHughen SA, Pearson-Fuhrhop K, Ngo VK, Cramer SC. Intense training overcomes
effects of the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism on short-term plasticity. Exp Brain
Res. 2011 Sep;213(4):415-22. doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2791-z. Epub 2011 Jul 17.
PubMed PMID: 21769545.

47: Cramer SC. Listening to fluoxetine: a hot message from the FLAME trial of
poststroke motor recovery. Int J Stroke. 2011 Aug;6(4):315-6. doi:
10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00618.x. PubMed PMID: 21745341.

48: Caplan LR, Arenillas J, Cramer SC, Joutel A, Lo EH, Meschia J, Savitz S,
Tournier-Lasserve E. Stroke-related translational research. Arch Neurol. 2011
Sep;68(9):1110-23. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2011.99. Epub 2011 May 9. Review.
PubMed PMID: 21555605; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3691989.

49: Riley JD, Moore S, Cramer SC, Lin JJ. Caudate atrophy and impaired
frontostriatal connections are linked to executive dysfunction in temporal lobe
epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 May;21(1):80-7. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.03.013.
Epub 2011 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 21507730; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3090499.

50: Cramer SC, Sur M, Dobkin BH, O'Brien C, Sanger TD, Trojanowski JQ, Rumsey JM,
Hicks R, Cameron J, Chen D, Chen WG, Cohen LG, deCharms C, Duffy CJ, Eden GF,
Fetz EE, Filart R, Freund M, Grant SJ, Haber S, Kalivas PW, Kolb B, Kramer AF,
Lynch M, Mayberg HS, McQuillen PS, Nitkin R, Pascual-Leone A, Reuter-Lorenz P,
Schiff N, Sharma A, Shekim L, Stryker M, Sullivan EV, Vinogradov S. Harnessing
neuroplasticity for clinical applications. Brain. 2011 Jun;134(Pt 6):1591-609.
doi: 10.1093/brain/awr039. Epub 2011 Apr 10. PubMed PMID: 21482550; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3102236.

51: Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Cramer SC. Genetic influences on neural plasticity. PM R.
2010 Dec;2(12 Suppl 2):S227-40. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.09.011. Review. PubMed
PMID: 21172685.

52: Cramer SC, Wu J, Hanson JA, Nouri S, Karnani D, Chuang TM, Le V. A system for
addressing incidental findings in neuroimaging research. Neuroimage. 2011 Apr
1;55(3):1020-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.11.091. Epub 2011 Jan 8. PubMed
PMID: 21224007; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3057347.

53: Brainin M, Norrving B, Sunnerhagen KS, Goldstein LB, Cramer SC, Donnan GA,
Duncan PW, Francisco G, Good D, Graham G, Kissela BM, Olver J, Ward A, Wissel J,
Zorowitz R; International PSS Disability Study Group. Poststroke chronic disease
management: towards improved identification and interventions for poststroke
spasticity-related complications. Int J Stroke. 2011 Feb;6(1):42-6. doi:
10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00539.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 21205240.

54: Riley JD, Le V, Der-Yeghiaian L, See J, Newton JM, Ward NS, Cramer SC.
Anatomy of stroke injury predicts gains from therapy. Stroke. 2011
Feb;42(2):421-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.599340. Epub 2010 Dec 16. PubMed
PMID: 21164128; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3026869.

55: Cramer SC. Stratifying patients with stroke in trials that target brain
repair. Stroke. 2010 Oct;41(10 Suppl):S114-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.595165.
Review. PubMed PMID: 20876483.

56: Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, Hacke W, Cramer SC, Kaste M, Fisher M,
Brainin M, Buchan AM, Lo EH, Skolnick BE, Furie KL, Hankey GJ, Kivipelto M,
Morris J, Rothwell PM, Sacco RL, Smith SC Jr, Wang Y, Bryer A, Ford GA, Iadecola
C, Martins SC, Saver J, Skvortsova V, Bayley M, Bednar MM, Duncan P, Enney L,
Finklestein S, Jones TA, Kalra L, Kleim J, Nitkin R, Teasell R, Weiller C, Desai
B, Goldberg MP, Heiss WD, Saarelma O, Schwamm LH, Shinohara Y, Trivedi B,
Wahlgren N, Wong LK, Hakim A, Norrving B, Prudhomme S, Bornstein NM, Davis SM,
Goldstein LB, Leys D, Tuomilehto J. Stroke: working toward a prioritized world
agenda. Int J Stroke. 2010 Aug;5(4):238-56. doi:
10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00442.x. PubMed PMID: 20636706; PubMed Central PMCID:

57: Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, Hacke W, Cramer SC, Kaste M, Fisher M,
Brainin M, Buchan AM, Lo EH, Skolnick BE, Furie KL, Hankey GJ, Kivipelto M,
Morris J, Rothwell PM, Sacco RL, Smith SC Jr, Wang Y, Bryer A, Ford GA, Iadecola
C, Martins SC, Saver J, Skvortsova V, Bayley M, Bednar MM, Duncan P, Enney L,
Finklestein S, Jones TA, Kalra L, Kleim J, Nitkin R, Teasell R, Weiller C, Desai
B, Goldberg MP, Heiss WD, Saarelma O, Schwamm LH, Shinohara Y, Trivedi B,
Wahlgren N, Wong LK, Hakim A, Norrving B, Prudhomme S, Bornstein NM, Davis SM,
Goldstein LB, Leys D, Tuomilehto J; Stroke Synergium. Stroke: working toward a
prioritized world agenda. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010;30(2):127-47. doi:
10.1159/000315099. Epub 2010 May 24. PubMed PMID: 20516682; PubMed Central PMCID:

58: Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, Hacke W, Cramer SC, Kaste M, Fisher M,
Brainin M, Buchan AM, Lo EH, Skolnick BE, Furie KL, Hankey GJ, Kivipelto M,
Morris J, Rothwell PM, Sacco RL, Smith SC Jr, Wang Y, Bryer A, Ford GA, Iadecola
C, Martins SC, Saver J, Skvortsova V, Bayley M, Bednar MM, Duncan P, Enney L,
Finklestein S, Jones TA, Kalra L, Kleim J, Nitkin R, Teasell R, Weiller C, Desai
B, Goldberg MP, Heiss WD, Saarelma O, Schwamm LH, Shinohara Y, Trivedi B,
Wahlgren N, Wong LK, Hakim A, Norrving B, Prudhomme S, Bornstein NM, Davis SM,
Goldstein LB, Leys D, Tuomilehto J. Stroke: working toward a prioritized world
agenda. Stroke. 2010 Jun;41(6):1084-99. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.586156.
Review. PubMed PMID: 20498453; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3712843.

59: Wolk DA, Dickerson BC; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has dissociable effects on memory and
attentional-executive network function in Alzheimer's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci
U S A. 2010 Jun 1;107(22):10256-61. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1001412107. Epub 2010 May
17. PubMed PMID: 20479234; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2890481.

60: Ho AJ, Stein JL, Hua X, Lee S, Hibar DP, Leow AD, Dinov ID, Toga AW, Saykin
AJ, Shen L, Foroud T, Pankratz N, Huentelman MJ, Craig DW, Gerber JD, Allen AN,
Corneveaux JJ, Stephan DA, DeCarli CS, DeChairo BM, Potkin SG, Jack CR Jr, Weiner
MW, Raji CA, Lopez OL, Becker JT, Carmichael OT, Thompson PM; Alzheimer's Disease
Neuroimaging Initiative. A commonly carried allele of the obesity-related FTO
gene is associated with reduced brain volume in the healthy elderly. Proc Natl
Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 4;107(18):8404-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910878107. Epub
2010 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 20404173; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2889537.

61: Cramer SC. Brain repair after stroke. N Engl J Med. 2010 May
13;362(19):1827-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe1003399. Epub 2010 Apr 16. PubMed PMID:

62: Yozbatiran N, Harness ET, Le V, Luu D, Lopes CV, Cramer SC. A tele-assessment
system for monitoring treatment effects in subjects with spinal cord injury. J
Telemed Telecare. 2010;16(3):152-7. doi: 10.1258/jtt.2009.090703. PubMed PMID:

63: Cramer SC, Fitzpatrick C, Warren M, Hill MD, Brown D, Whitaker L, Ryckborst
KJ, Plon L. The beta-hCG+erythropoietin in acute stroke (BETAS) study: a
3-center, single-dose, open-label, noncontrolled, phase IIa safety trial. Stroke.
2010 May;41(5):927-31. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.574343. Epub 2010 Mar 4. PubMed
PMID: 20203320; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2869209.

64: Riley JD, Franklin DL, Choi V, Kim RC, Binder DK, Cramer SC, Lin JJ. Altered
white matter integrity in temporal lobe epilepsy: association with cognitive and
clinical profiles. Epilepsia. 2010 Apr;51(4):536-45. doi:
10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02508.x. Epub 2010 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 20132296; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC2929974.

65: Rimol LM, Agartz I, Djurovic S, Brown AA, Roddey JC, Kähler AK, Mattingsdal
M, Athanasiu L, Joyner AH, Schork NJ, Halgren E, Sundet K, Melle I, Dale AM,
Andreassen OA; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Sex-dependent
association of common variants of microcephaly genes with brain structure. Proc
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 5;107(1):384-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0908454107. Epub
2009 Dec 22. PubMed PMID: 20080800; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2806758.

66: Reinkensmeyer DJ, Maier MA, Guigon E, Chan V, Akoner O, Wolbrecht ET, Cramer
SC, Bobrow JE. Do robotic and non-robotic arm movement training drive motor
recovery after stroke by a common neural mechanism? Experimental evidence and a
computational model. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:2439-41. doi:
10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5335353. PubMed PMID: 19965205.

67: Cramer SC, Sampat A, Haske-Palomino M, Nguyen S, Procaccio V, Hermanowicz N.
Increased prevalence of val(66)met BDNF genotype among subjects with cervical
dystonia. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Jan 1;468(1):42-5. doi:
10.1016/j.neulet.2009.10.059. Epub 2009 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 19857550; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC3270368.

68: Underhill HR, Yuan C, Yarnykh VL, Chu B, Oikawa M, Dong L, Polissar NL,
Garden GA, Cramer SC, Hatsukami TS. Predictors of surface disruption with MR
imaging in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010
Mar;31(3):487-93. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A1842. Epub 2009 Oct 15. PubMed PMID:
19833801; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2840062.

69: Marchal-Crespo L, McHughen S, Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. The effect of
haptic guidance, aging, and initial skill level on motor learning of a steering
task. Exp Brain Res. 2010 Mar;201(2):209-20. doi: 10.1007/s00221-009-2026-8. Epub
2009 Oct 10. PubMed PMID: 19820920; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2832903.

70: Milot MH, Marchal-Crespo L, Green CS, Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Comparison
of error-amplification and haptic-guidance training techniques for learning of a
timing-based motor task by healthy individuals. Exp Brain Res. 2010
Mar;201(2):119-31. doi: 10.1007/s00221-009-2014-z. Epub 2009 Sep 29. PubMed PMID:

71: McHughen SA, Rodriguez PF, Kleim JA, Kleim ED, Marchal Crespo L, Procaccio V,
Cramer SC. BDNF val66met polymorphism influences motor system function in the
human brain. Cereb Cortex. 2010 May;20(5):1254-62. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp189.
Epub 2009 Sep 10. PubMed PMID: 19745020; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2852510.

72: Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Kleim JA, Cramer SC. Brain plasticity and genetic
factors. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2009 Jul-Aug;16(4):282-99. doi: 10.1310/tsr1604-282.
Review. PubMed PMID: 19740733.

73: Davidoff AW, Hill MD, Cramer SC, Yang Y, Moore A. Open labeled, uncontrolled
pharmacokinetic study of a single intramuscular hCG dose in healthy male
volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Aug;47(8):516-24. PubMed PMID:

74: Cramer SC, Dobkin BH, Noser EA, Rodriguez RW, Enney LA. Randomized,
placebo-controlled, double-blind study of ropinirole in chronic stroke. Stroke.
2009 Sep;40(9):3034-8. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.552075. Epub 2009 Jun 11.
PubMed PMID: 19520987.

75: Cramer SC. The VECTORS study: When too much of a good thing is harmful.
Neurology. 2009 Jul 21;73(3):170-1. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181ae2389. Epub 2009
Jun 10. PubMed PMID: 19515995.

76: Saver JL, Albers GW, Dunn B, Johnston KC, Fisher M; STAIR VI Consortium.
Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations for extended
window acute stroke therapy trials. Stroke. 2009 Jul;40(7):2594-600. doi:
10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.552554. Epub 2009 May 28. PubMed PMID: 19478212; PubMed
Central PMCID: PMC2761073.

77: Belayev L, Khoutorova L, Zhao KL, Davidoff AW, Moore AF, Cramer SC. A novel
neurotrophic therapeutic strategy for experimental stroke. Brain Res. 2009 Jul
14;1280:117-23. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.05.030. Epub 2009 May 20. PubMed
PMID: 19463796.

78: Lane TA, Garls D, Mackintosh E, Kohli S, Cramer SC. Liquid storage of marrow
stromal cells. Transfusion. 2009 Jul;49(7):1471-81. doi:
10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02138.x. Epub 2009 Mar 31. PubMed PMID: 19389020.

79: Jack CR Jr, Lowe VJ, Weigand SD, Wiste HJ, Senjem ML, Knopman DS, Shiung MM,
Gunter JL, Boeve BF, Kemp BJ, Weiner M, Petersen RC; Alzheimer's Disease
Neuroimaging Initiative. Serial PIB and MRI in normal, mild cognitive impairment
and Alzheimer's disease: implications for sequence of pathological events in
Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2009 May;132(Pt 5):1355-65. doi:
10.1093/brain/awp062. Epub 2009 Mar 31. PubMed PMID: 19339253; PubMed Central
PMCID: PMC2677798.

80: Page SJ, Szaflarski JP, Eliassen JC, Pan H, Cramer SC. Cortical plasticity
following motor skill learning during mental practice in stroke. Neurorehabil
Neural Repair. 2009 May;23(4):382-8. doi: 10.1177/1545968308326427. Epub 2009 Jan
20. PubMed PMID: 19155350; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3258452.

81: Cramer SC. Use of imaging in restorative stroke trials. Stroke. 2009 Mar;40(3
Suppl):S28-9. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.530576. Epub 2008 Dec 8. Review. PubMed
PMID: 19064808.

82: Cramer SC. A window into the molecular basis of human brain plasticity. J
Physiol. 2008 Dec 1;586(Pt 23):5601. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.165183. PubMed
PMID: 19043118; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2655405.

83: Mormino EC, Kluth JT, Madison CM, Rabinovici GD, Baker SL, Miller BL, Koeppe
RA, Mathis CA, Weiner MW, Jagust WJ; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
Episodic memory loss is related to hippocampal-mediated beta-amyloid deposition
in elderly subjects. Brain. 2009 May;132(Pt 5):1310-23. doi:
10.1093/brain/awn320. Epub 2008 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 19042931; PubMed Central
PMCID: PMC2677792.

84: Milot MH, Cramer SC. Biomarkers of recovery after stroke. Curr Opin Neurol.
2008 Dec;21(6):654-9. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e3283186f96. Review. PubMed PMID:
18989108; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2882885.

85: Huda S, Rodriguez R, Lastra L, Warren M, Lacourse MG, Cohen MJ, Cramer SC.
Cortical activation during foot movements: II effect of movement rate and side.
Neuroreport. 2008 Oct 29;19(16):1573-7. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e328311ca1c. PubMed
PMID: 18845938.

86: Yozbatiran N, Alonso-Alonso M, See J, Demirtas-Tatlidede A, Luu D, Motiwala
RR, Pascual-Leone A, Cramer SC. Safety and behavioral effects of high-frequency
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke. Stroke. 2009
Jan;40(1):309-12. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.522144. Epub 2008 Oct 9. PubMed
PMID: 18845801; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3366156.

87: Lin JJ, Riley JD, Juranek J, Cramer SC. Vulnerability of the frontal-temporal
connections in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2008 Dec;82(2-3):162-70.
doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2008.07.020. Epub 2008 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 18829258.

88: Cramer SC, Seitz RJ. Imaging functional recovery from stroke. Handb Clin
Neurol. 2009;94:1097-117. doi: 10.1016/S0072-9752(08)94054-9. PubMed PMID:

89: Brown JA, Lutsep HL, Weinand M, Cramer SC. Motor cortex stimulation for the
enhancement of recovery from stroke: a prospective, multicenter safety study.
Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb;62 Suppl 2:853-62. doi:
10.1227/01.neu.0000316287.37618.78. PubMed PMID: 18596422.

90: Tafti MA, Cramer SC, Gupta R. Orthopaedic management of the upper extremity
of stroke patients. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Aug;16(8):462-70. Review. PubMed
PMID: 18664635.

91: Harness ET, Yozbatiran N, Cramer SC. Effects of intense exercise in chronic
spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2008 Nov;46(11):733-7. doi: 10.1038/sc.2008.56.
Epub 2008 Jun 3. PubMed PMID: 18521094.

92: Cramer SC. Repairing the human brain after stroke. II. Restorative therapies.
Ann Neurol. 2008 May;63(5):549-60. doi: 10.1002/ana.21412. Review. PubMed PMID:

93: Cramer SC. Repairing the human brain after stroke: I. Mechanisms of
spontaneous recovery. Ann Neurol. 2008 Mar;63(3):272-87. doi: 10.1002/ana.21393.
Review. PubMed PMID: 18383072.

94: Orr EL, Lacourse MG, Cohen MJ, Cramer SC. Cortical activation during
executed, imagined, and observed foot movements. Neuroreport. 2008 Apr
16;19(6):625-30. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282fbf9e0. PubMed PMID: 18382275.

95: Westhout FD, Paré LS, Delfino RJ, Cramer SC. Slope of the intracranial
pressure waveform after traumatic brain injury. Surg Neurol. 2008 Jul;70(1):70-4;
discussion 74. doi: 10.1016/j.surneu.2007.04.020. Epub 2008 Feb 8. PubMed PMID:

96: Cramer SC, Riley JD. Neuroplasticity and brain repair after stroke. Curr Opin
Neurol. 2008 Feb;21(1):76-82. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282f36cb6. Review. PubMed
PMID: 18180655.

97: Takahashi CD, Der-Yeghiaian L, Le V, Motiwala RR, Cramer SC. Robot-based hand
motor therapy after stroke. Brain. 2008 Feb;131(Pt 2):425-37. Epub 2007 Dec 20.
PubMed PMID: 18156154.

98: Yozbatiran N, Der-Yeghiaian L, Cramer SC. A standardized approach to
performing the action research arm test. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008
Jan-Feb;22(1):78-90. Epub 2007 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 17704352.

99: Kleim JA, Kleim ED, Cramer SC. Systematic assessment of training-induced
changes in corticospinal output to hand using frameless stereotaxic transcranial
magnetic stimulation. Nat Protoc. 2007;2(7):1675-84. PubMed PMID: 17641632.

100: Cramer SC, Parrish TB, Levy RM, Stebbins GT, Ruland SD, Lowry DW, Trouard
TP, Squire SW, Weinand ME, Savage CR, Wilkinson SB, Juranek J, Leu SY, Himes DM.
Predicting functional gains in a stroke trial. Stroke. 2007 Jul;38(7):2108-14.
Epub 2007 May 31. PubMed PMID: 17540966.

101: Cramer SC. The EXCITE trial: a major step forward for restorative therapies
in stroke. Stroke. 2007 Jul;38(7):2204-5. Epub 2007 May 31. PubMed PMID:

102: Kostanian V, Cramer SC. Artery of Percheron thrombolysis. AJNR Am J
Neuroradiol. 2007 May;28(5):870-1. PubMed PMID: 17494659.

103: Cramer SC, Koroshetz WJ, Finklestein SP. The case for modality-specific
outcome measures in clinical trials of stroke recovery-promoting agents. Stroke.
2007 Apr;38(4):1393-5. Epub 2007 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 17332455.

104: Stradling D, Yu W, Langdorf ML, Tsai F, Kostanian V, Hasso AN, Welbourne SJ,
Schooley Y, Fisher MJ, Cramer SC. Stroke care delivery before vs after JCAHO
stroke center certification. Neurology. 2007 Feb 6;68(6):469-70. PubMed PMID:

105: Hodics T, Cohen LG, Cramer SC. Functional imaging of intervention effects in
stroke motor rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Dec;87(12 Suppl
2):S36-42. Review. PubMed PMID: 17140878.

106: Yozbatiran N, Cramer SC. Imaging motor recovery after stroke. NeuroRx. 2006
Oct;3(4):482-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 17012062; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3593410.

107: Sanchez RJ, Liu J, Rao S, Shah P, Smith R, Rahman T, Cramer SC, Bobrow JE,
Reinkensmeyer DJ. Automating arm movement training following severe stroke:
functional exercises with quantitative feedback in a gravity-reduced environment.
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2006 Sep;14(3):378-89. PubMed PMID: 17009498.

108: Liu J, Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Learning to perform a new movement with
robotic assistance: comparison of haptic guidance and visual demonstration. J
Neuroeng Rehabil. 2006 Aug 31;3:20. PubMed PMID: 16945148; PubMed Central PMCID:

109: Cramer SC, Orr EL, Cohen MJ, Lacourse MG. Effects of motor imagery training
after chronic, complete spinal cord injury. Exp Brain Res. 2007
Feb;177(2):233-42. Epub 2006 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 16944108.

110: Kleim JA, Chan S, Pringle E, Schallert K, Procaccio V, Jimenez R, Cramer SC.
BDNF val66met polymorphism is associated with modified experience-dependent
plasticity in human motor cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jun;9(6):735-7. Epub 2006
May 7. PubMed PMID: 16680163.

111: Brown JA, Lutsep HL, Weinand M, Cramer SC. Motor cortex stimulation for the
enhancement of recovery from stroke: a prospective, multicenter safety study.
Neurosurgery. 2006 Mar;58(3):464-73. PubMed PMID: 16528186.

112: Takaya N, Yuan C, Chu B, Saam T, Underhill H, Cai J, Tran N, Polissar NL,
Isaac C, Ferguson MS, Garden GA, Cramer SC, Maravilla KR, Hashimoto B, Hatsukami
TS. Association between carotid plaque characteristics and subsequent ischemic
cerebrovascular events: a prospective assessment with MRI--initial results.
Stroke. 2006 Mar;37(3):818-23. Epub 2006 Feb 9. PubMed PMID: 16469957.

113: Takahashi CD, Der Yeghiaian L, Cramer SC. Stroke recovery and its imaging.
Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2005 Aug;15(3):681-95, xii. Review. PubMed PMID:

114: Cramer SC, Shah R, Juranek J, Crafton KR, Le V. Activity in the peri-infarct
rim in relation to recovery from stroke. Stroke. 2006 Jan;37(1):111-5. Epub 2005
Nov 23. PubMed PMID: 16306462.

115: Cramer SC, Lastra L, Lacourse MG, Cohen MJ. Brain motor system function
after chronic, complete spinal cord injury. Brain. 2005 Dec;128(Pt 12):2941-50.
Epub 2005 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 16246866.

116: Cramer SC. Patent foramen ovale and stroke: prognosis and treatment in young
adults. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2005 Oct;20(2):85-91. PubMed PMID: 16205857.

117: Cramer SC, Crafton KR. Somatotopy and movement representation sites
following cortical stroke. Exp Brain Res. 2006 Jan;168(1-2):25-32. Epub 2005 Aug
12. PubMed PMID: 16096783.

118: Lacourse MG, Orr EL, Cramer SC, Cohen MJ. Brain activation during execution
and motor imagery of novel and skilled sequential hand movements. Neuroimage.
2005 Sep;27(3):505-19. PubMed PMID: 16046149.

119: Cramer SC, Benson RR, Himes DM, Burra VC, Janowsky JS, Weinand ME, Brown JA,
Lutsep HL. Use of functional MRI to guide decisions in a clinical stroke trial.
Stroke. 2005 May;36(5):e50-2. Epub 2005 Apr 14. PubMed PMID: 15831835.

120: Aylward EH, Park JE, Field KM, Parsons AC, Richards TL, Cramer SC, Meltzoff
AN. Brain activation during face perception: evidence of a developmental change.
J Cogn Neurosci. 2005 Feb;17(2):308-19. PubMed PMID: 15811242.

121: Cramer SC. Patent foramen ovale and its relationship to stroke. Cardiol
Clin. 2005 Feb;23(1):7-11. Review. PubMed PMID: 15676264.

122: Cavendish JJ, Cramer SC, Graham GD. Role of antiplatelet therapy in
cardiovascular disease II: Ischemic stroke. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004
Nov;20(11):1845-9. PubMed PMID: 15537485.

123: Cramer SC. Changes in motor system function and recovery after stroke.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2004;22(3-5):231-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 15502267.

124: Baron JC, Cohen LG, Cramer SC, Dobkin BH, Johansen-Berg H, Loubinoux I,
Marshall RS, Ward NS; First International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke
Recovery. Neuroimaging in stroke recovery: a position paper from the First
International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke Recovery. Cerebrovasc Dis.
2004;18(3):260-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 15484327; PubMed Central PMCID:

125: Cramer SC. Functional imaging in stroke recovery. Stroke. 2004 Nov;35(11
Suppl 1):2695-8. Epub 2004 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 15388899.

126: Reinkensmeyer DJ, Emken JL, Cramer SC. Robotics, motor learning, and
neurologic recovery. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2004;6:497-525. Review. PubMed PMID:

127: Nhan H, Barquist K, Bell K, Esselman P, Odderson IR, Cramer SC. Brain
function early after stroke in relation to subsequent recovery. J Cereb Blood
Flow Metab. 2004 Jul;24(7):756-63. PubMed PMID: 15241183.

128: Parisi MA, Pinter JD, Glass IA, Field K, Maria BL, Chance PF, Mahurin RK,
Cramer SC. Cerebral and cerebellar motor activation abnormalities in a subject
with Joubert syndrome: functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. J Child
Neurol. 2004 Mar;19(3):214-8. PubMed PMID: 15119482.

129: Atri A, Sherman S, Norman KA, Kirchhoff BA, Nicolas MM, Greicius MD, Cramer
SC, Breiter HC, Hasselmo ME, Stern CE. Blockade of central cholinergic receptors
impairs new learning and increases proactive interference in a word
paired-associate memory task. Behav Neurosci. 2004 Feb;118(1):223-36. PubMed
PMID: 14979800.

130: Bodwell JA, Mahurin RK, Waddle S, Price R, Cramer SC. Age and features of
movement influence motor overflow. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 Dec;51(12):1735-9.
PubMed PMID: 14687351.

131: Cramer SC. Editorial comment--spasticity after stroke: what's the catch?
Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):139-40. Epub 2003 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 14684784.

132: Brown JA, Lutsep H, Cramer SC, Weinand M. Motor cortex stimulation for
enhancement of recovery after stroke: case report. Neurol Res. 2003
Dec;25(8):815-8. PubMed PMID: 14669524.

133: Cramer SC, Benson RR, Burra VC, Himes D, Crafton KR, Janowsky JS, Brown JA,
Lutsep HL. Mapping individual brains to guide restorative therapy after stroke:
rationale and pilot studies. Neurol Res. 2003 Dec;25(8):811-4. PubMed PMID:

134: Cramer SC, Rordorf G, Maki JH, Kramer LA, Grotta JC, Burgin WS, Hinchey JA,
Benesch C, Furie KL, Lutsep HL, Kelly E, Longstreth WT Jr. Increased pelvic vein
thrombi in cryptogenic stroke: results of the Paradoxical Emboli from Large Veins
in Ischemic Stroke (PELVIS) study. Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):46-50. Epub 2003 Dec 4.
PubMed PMID: 14657451.

135: Morrison SJ, Demorest SM, Aylward EH, Cramer SC, Maravilla KR. FMRI
investigation of cross-cultural music comprehension. Neuroimage. 2003
Sep;20(1):378-84. PubMed PMID: 14527597.

136: Cramer SC, Maki JH, Waitches GM, D'Souza N, Grotta JC, Burgin WS, Kramer LA.
Paradoxical emboli from calf and pelvic veins in cryptogenic stroke. J
Neuroimaging. 2003 Jul;13(3):218-23. PubMed PMID: 12889167.

137: Aylward EH, Richards TL, Berninger VW, Nagy WE, Field KM, Grimme AC,
Richards AL, Thomson JB, Cramer SC. Instructional treatment associated with
changes in brain activation in children with dyslexia. Neurology. 2003 Jul
22;61(2):212-9. PubMed PMID: 12874401.

138: Cramer SC. Editorial comment--Implementing results of stroke recovery
research into clinical practice. Stroke. 2003 Jul;34(7):1752-3. Epub 2003 Jun 19.
PubMed PMID: 12817097.

139: Crafton KR, Mark AN, Cramer SC. Improved understanding of cortical injury by
incorporating measures of functional anatomy. Brain. 2003 Jul;126(Pt 7):1650-9.
Epub 2003 May 21. PubMed PMID: 12805118.

140: Zemke AC, Heagerty PJ, Lee C, Cramer SC. Motor cortex organization after
stroke is related to side of stroke and level of recovery. Stroke. 2003
May;34(5):e23-8. Epub 2003 Apr 3. PubMed PMID: 12677024.

141: Cramer SC. Clinical issues in animal models of stroke and rehabilitation.
ILAR J. 2003;44(2):83-4. Review. PubMed PMID: 12652002.

142: Cramer SC. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in stroke recovery. Phys
Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2003 Feb;14(1 Suppl):S47-55. Review. PubMed PMID:

143: Schaechter JD, Kraft E, Hilliard TS, Dijkhuizen RM, Benner T, Finklestein
SP, Rosen BR, Cramer SC. Motor recovery and cortical reorganization after
constraint-induced movement therapy in stroke patients: a preliminary study.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2002 Dec;16(4):326-38. PubMed PMID: 12462764.

144: Cramer SC, Mark A, Barquist K, Nhan H, Stegbauer KC, Price R, Bell K,
Odderson IR, Esselman P, Maravilla KR. Motor cortex activation is preserved in
patients with chronic hemiplegic stroke. Ann Neurol. 2002 Nov;52(5):607-16.
PubMed PMID: 12402258.

145: Cramer SC, Weisskoff RM, Schaechter JD, Nelles G, Foley M, Finklestein SP,
Rosen BR. Motor cortex activation is related to force of squeezing. Hum Brain
Mapp. 2002 Aug;16(4):197-205. PubMed PMID: 12112762.

146: Doherty MJ, Watson NF, Uchino K, Hallam DK, Cramer SC. Diffusion
abnormalities in patients with Wernicke encephalopathy. Neurology. 2002 Feb
26;58(4):655-7. PubMed PMID: 11865152.

147: Cramer SC, Fray E, Tievsky A, Parker RA, Riskind PN, Stein MC, Wedeen V,
Rosen BR. Changes in motor cortex activation after recovery from spinal cord
inflammation. Mult Scler. 2001 Dec;7(6):364-70. PubMed PMID: 11795457.

148: Cramer SC, Stegbauer KC, Schneider A, Mukai J, Maravilla KR. Decreased
diffusion in central pontine myelinolysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001
Sep;22(8):1476-9. PubMed PMID: 11559493.

149: Cramer SC, Nelles G, Schaechter JD, Kaplan JD, Finklestein SP, Rosen BR. A
functional MRI study of three motor tasks in the evaluation of stroke recovery.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2001;15(1):1-8. PubMed PMID: 11527274.

150: Reed SD, Cramer SC, Blough DK, Meyer K, Jarvik JG. Treatment with tissue
plasminogen activator and inpatient mortality rates for patients with ischemic
stroke treated in community hospitals. Stroke. 2001 Aug;32(8):1832-40. PubMed
PMID: 11486113.

151: Uchino K, Billheimer D, Cramer SC. Entry criteria and baseline
characteristics predict outcome in acute stroke trials. Stroke. 2001
Apr;32(4):909-16. Review. PubMed PMID: 11283391.

152: Cramer SC. Stroke recovery: how the computer reprograms itself. Neuronal
plasticity: the key to stroke recovery. Kananskis, Alberta, Canada, 19-22 March
2000. Mol Med Today. 2000 Aug;6(8):301-3. PubMed PMID: 11041652.

153: Cramer SC, Chopp M. Recovery recapitulates ontogeny. Trends Neurosci. 2000
Jun;23(6):265-71. Review. PubMed PMID: 10838596.

154: Rordorf G, Koroshetz W, Efird JT, Cramer SC. Predictors of mortality in
stroke patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2000
May;28(5):1301-5. PubMed PMID: 10834669.

155: Cramer SC, Moore CI, Finklestein SP, Rosen BR. A pilot study of somatotopic
mapping after cortical infarct. Stroke. 2000 Mar;31(3):668-71. PubMed PMID:

156: Cramer SC, Bastings EP. Mapping clinically relevant plasticity after stroke.
Neuropharmacology. 2000 Mar 3;39(5):842-51. Review. PubMed PMID: 10699449.

157: Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR). Recommendations for
standards regarding preclinical neuroprotective and restorative drug development.
Stroke. 1999 Dec;30(12):2752-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 10583007.

158: Cramer SC. Stroke recovery. Lessons from functional MR imaging and other
methods of human brain mapping. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 1999
Nov;10(4):875-86, ix. Review. PubMed PMID: 10573713.

159: Cramer SC, Finklestein SP, Schaechter JD, Bush G, Rosen BR. Activation of
distinct motor cortex regions during ipsilateral and contralateral finger
movements. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Jan;81(1):383-7. PubMed PMID: 9914297.

160: Cramer SC, Rordorf G, Kaufman JA, Buonanno F, Koroshetz WJ, Schwamm L.
Clinically occult pelvic-vein thrombosis in cryptogenic stroke. Lancet. 1998 Jun
27;351(9120):1927-8. PubMed PMID: 9654263.

161: Nelles G, Cramer SC, Schaechter JD, Kaplan JD, Finklestein SP. Quantitative
assessment of mirror movements after stroke. Stroke. 1998 Jun;29(6):1182-7.
PubMed PMID: 9626292.

162: Rordorf G, Koroshetz WJ, Copen WA, Cramer SC, Schaefer PW, Budzik RF Jr,
Schwamm LH, Buonanno F, Sorensen AG, Gonzalez G. Regional ischemia and ischemic
injury in patients with acute middle cerebral artery stroke as defined by early
diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted MRI. Stroke. 1998 May;29(5):939-43.
PubMed PMID: 9596239.

163: Cramer SC, Nelles G, Benson RR, Kaplan JD, Parker RA, Kwong KK, Kennedy DN,
Finklestein SP, Rosen BR. A functional MRI study of subjects recovered from
hemiparetic stroke. Stroke. 1997 Dec;28(12):2518-27. PubMed PMID: 9412643.

164: Cramer SC, Nelles G, Schaechter JD, Kaplan JD, Finklestein SP. Computerized
measurement of motor performance after stroke. Stroke. 1997 Nov;28(11):2162-8.
PubMed PMID: 9368558.

165: Rordorf G, Cramer SC, Efird JT, Schwamm LH, Buonanno F, Koroshetz WJ.
Pharmacological elevation of blood pressure in acute stroke. Clinical effects and
safety. Stroke. 1997 Nov;28(11):2133-8. PubMed PMID: 9368553.

166: Cramer SC, Schaefer PW, Krishnamoorthy KS. Microgyria in the distribution of
the middle cerebral artery in a patient with DiGeorge syndrome. J Child Neurol.
1996 Nov;11(6):494-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 9120232.

167: Cramer SC, Robertson RL, Dooling EC, Scott RM. Moyamoya and Down syndrome.
Clinical and radiological features. Stroke. 1996 Nov;27(11):2131-5. PubMed PMID:

168: Cramer SC, Glaspy JA, Efird JT, Louis DN. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and
the central nervous system: a clinical and pathological study. Neurology. 1996
Jan;46(1):19-25. Review. PubMed PMID: 8559372.

169: Cramer SC, Pardridge WM, Hirayama BA, Wright EM. Colocalization of GLUT2
glucose transporter, sodium/glucose cotransporter, and gamma-glutamyl
transpeptidase in rat kidney with double-peroxidase immunocytochemistry.
Diabetes. 1992 Jun;41(6):766-70. PubMed PMID: 1350259.

170: Cramer SC, Rhodes RH, Acton EM, Tökés ZA. Neurotoxicity and dermatotoxicity
of cyanomorpholinyl adriamycin. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1989;23(2):71-5.
PubMed PMID: 2910514.
Graduate Programs Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program

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