Steven C. Cramer

Professor, Neurology
School of Medicine

Professor, Department Anatomy & Neurobiology; Professor, Department Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation; Associate Director, Institute for Clinical & Translational Science
School of Medicine

M.D., University of Southern California, 1988, Medicine

M.M.Sc, Harvard Medical School, 1997, Clinical Investigation

Phone: (714) 456-6876
Fax: (714) 456-8805

University of California, Irvine
200 S. Manchester Ave
Suite 206
Mail Code: 4280
Orange, CA 92868

picture of Steven C. Cramer

CNS Repair in Humans; Stroke; Spinal Cord Injury; Motor System; Plasticity after CNS Injury; Brain Imaging
Publications Cramer SC, Wolf SL, Adams HP Jr, Chen D, Dromerick AW, Dunning K, Ellerbe C, Grande A, Janis S, Lansberg MG, Lazar RM, Palesch YY, Richards L, Roth E, Savitz SI, Wechsler LR, Wintermark M, Broderick JP. Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Research: Issues, Opportunities, and the National Institutes of Health StrokeNet. Stroke. 2017 Mar;48(3):813-819. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015501. Epub 2017 Feb 7. PubMed PMID: 28174324; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5330812.
Cramer SC, Enney LA, Russell CK, Simeoni M, Thompson TR. Proof-of-Concept Randomized Trial of the Monoclonal Antibody GSK249320 Versus Placebo in Stroke Patients. Stroke. 2017 Mar;48(3):692-698. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.014517. Epub 2017 Feb 22. PubMed PMID: 28228578; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5325241.
Cassidy JM, Cramer SC. Spontaneous and Therapeutic-Induced Mechanisms of Functional Recovery After Stroke. Transl Stroke Res. 2017 Feb;8(1):33-46. doi: 10.1007/s12975-016-0467-5. Epub 2016 Apr 25. PubMed PMID: 27109642; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5079852.

Gurlin RE, Keating MT, Li S, Lakey JR, de Feraudy S, Shergill BS, Botvinick EL. Vascularization and innervation of slits within polydimethylsiloxane sheets in the subcutaneous space of athymic nude mice. J Tissue Eng. 2017 Jan 30;8:2041731417691645. doi: 10.1177/2041731417691645. eCollection 2017 Jan-Dec. PubMed PMID: 28228933; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5308423.

Stewart JC, Dewanjee P, Tran G, Quinlan EB, Dodakian L, McKenzie A, See J, Cramer SC. Role of corpus callosum integrity in arm function differs based on motor severity after stroke. Neuroimage Clin. 2017 Mar 2;14:641-647. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2017.02.023. eCollection 2017. PubMed PMID: 28348955; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5357692.

Treister AK, Hatch MN, Cramer SC, Chang EY. Demystifying Poststroke Pain: From Etiology to Treatment. PM R. 2017 Jan;9(1):63-75. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2016.05.015. Epub 2016 Jun 16. Review. PubMed PMID: 27317916; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5161714.
Chiu NL, Kaiser B, Nguyen YV, Welbourne S, Lall C, Cramer SC. The Volume of the Spleen and Its Correlates after Acute Stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2016 Dec;25(12):2958-2961. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.08.012. Epub 2016 Sep 5. PubMed PMID: 27615448; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5154801. Cited in PMCRelated citations
Kassira S, Korta DZ, de Feraudy S, Zachary CB. Fractionated ablative carbon dioxide laser treatment of steatocystoma multiplex. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2016 Nov;18(7):364-366. Epub 2016 Jul 19. PubMed PMID: 27183246.
MacDonald HJ, Stinear CM, Ren A, Coxon JP, Kao J, Macdonald L, Snow B, Cramer SC, Byblow WD. Dopamine Gene Profiling to Predict Impulse Control and Effects of Dopamine Agonist Ropinirole. J Cogn Neurosci. 2016 Jul;28(7):909-19. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00946. Epub 2016 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 26942320.
Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, Bates B, Cherney LR, Cramer SC, Deruyter F, Eng JJ, Fisher B, Harvey RL, Lang CE, MacKay-Lyons M, Ottenbacher KJ, Pugh S, Reeves MJ, Richards LG, Stiers W, Zorowitz RD; American Heart Association Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Clinical Cardiology, and Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research.. Guidelines for Adult Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 Jun;47(6):e98-e169. doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000098. Epub 2016 May 4. Review. Erratum in: Stroke. 2017 Feb;48(2):e78. PubMed PMID: 27145936.

Juth V, Holman EA, Chan MK, Cramer SC. Genetics as a molecular window into recovery, its treatment, and stress responses after stroke. J Investig Med. 2016 Jun;64(5):983-8. doi: 10.1136/jim-2016-000126. Epub 2016 Apr 4. PubMed PMID: 27045100; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4942179.
Bernhardt J, Borschmann K, Boyd L, Thomas Carmichael S, Corbett D, Cramer SC, Hoffmann T, Kwakkel G, Savitz SI, Saposnik G, Walker M, Ward N. Moving rehabilitation research forward: Developing consensus statements for rehabilitation and recovery research. Int J Stroke. 2016 Jun;11(4):454-8. doi: 10.1177/1747493016643851. Epub 2016 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 27073187.
Wu J, Srinivasan R, Burke Quinlan E, Solodkin A, Small SL, Cramer SC. Utility of EEG measures of brain function in patients with acute stroke. J Neurophysiol. 2016 Jun 1;115(5):2399-405. doi: 10.1152/jn.00978.2015. Epub 2016 Mar 2. PubMed PMID: 26936984; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4922461.
Stewart JC, Dewanjee P, Shariff U, Cramer SC. Dorsal premotor activity and connectivity relate to action selection performance after stroke. Hum Brain Mapp. 2016 May;37(5):1816-30. doi: 10.1002/hbm.23138. Epub 2016 Feb 15. PubMed PMID: 26876608; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4836996.

Kim DY, Quinlan EB, Gramer R, Cramer SC. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Is Related to Motor System Function After Stroke. Phys Ther. 2016 Apr;96(4):533-9. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20150135. Epub 2015 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 26381810; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4817211.
Mousavi Hondori H, Khademi M, Dodakian L, McKenzie A, Lopes CV, Cramer SC. Choice of Human-Computer Interaction Mode in Stroke Rehabilitation. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016 Mar;30(3):258-65. doi: 10.1177/1545968315593805. Epub 2015 Jul 2. PubMed PMID: 26138411; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4698231.
Winstein CJ, Wolf SL, Dromerick AW, Lane CJ, Nelsen MA, Lewthwaite R, Cen SY, Azen SP; Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) Investigative Team.. Effect of a Task-Oriented Rehabilitation Program on Upper Extremity Recovery Following Motor Stroke: The ICARE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2016 Feb 9;315(6):571-81. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.0276. PubMed PMID: 26864411; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4795962.

Levy RM, Harvey RL, Kissela BM, Winstein CJ, Lutsep HL, Parrish TB, Cramer SC, Venkatesan L. Epidural Electrical Stimulation for Stroke Rehabilitation: Results of the Prospective, Multicenter, Randomized, Single-Blinded Everest Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2016 Feb;30(2):107-19. doi: 10.1177/1545968315575613. Epub 2015 Mar 6. PubMed PMID: 25748452.

Cash D, Easton AC, Mesquita M, Beech J, Williams S, Lloyd A, Irving E, Cramer SC. GSK249320, A Monoclonal Antibody Against the Axon Outgrowth Inhibition Molecule Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein, Improves Outcome of Rodents with Experimental Stroke. J Neurol Exp Neurosci. 2016;2(2):28-33. Epub 2016 Nov 21. PubMed PMID: 28018988; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5179224.
Yu Z, Prado R, Quinlan EB, Cramer SC, Ombao H. Understanding the Impact of Stroke on Brain Motor Function: A Hierarchical Bayesian Approach. J Am Stat Assoc. 2016;111(514):549-563. doi: 10.1080/01621459.2015.1133425. Epub 2016 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 28138206; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5270649.

Ingemanson ML, Rowe JB, Chan V, Wolbrecht ET, Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Use of a robotic device to measure age-related decline in finger proprioception. Exp Brain Res. 2016 Jan;234(1):83-93. doi: 10.1007/s00221-015-4440-4. Epub 2015 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 26378004.

Dawson J, Pierce D, Dixit A, Kimberley TJ, Robertson M, Tarver B, Hilmi O, McLean J, Forbes K, Kilgard MP, Rennaker RL, Cramer SC, Walters M, Engineer N. Safety, Feasibility, and Efficacy of Vagus Nerve Stimulation Paired With Upper-Limb Rehabilitation After Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2016 Jan;47(1):143-50. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010477. Epub 2015 Dec 8. PubMed PMID: 26645257; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4689175.

Bushnell C, Bettger JP, Cockroft KM, Cramer SC, Edelen MO, Hanley D, Katzan IL, Mattke S, Nilsen DM, Piquado T, Skidmore ER, Wing K, Yenokyan G. Chronic Stroke Outcome Measures for Motor Function Intervention Trials: Expert Panel Recommendations. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015 Oct;8(6 Suppl 3):S163-9. doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.115.002098. Review. PubMed PMID: 26515205; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5289112.

Cramer SC. Drugs to Enhance Motor Recovery After Stroke. Stroke. 2015 Oct;46(10):2998-3005. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.007433. Epub 2015 Aug 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 26265126; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4589468.

Wu J, Quinlan EB, Dodakian L, McKenzie A, Kathuria N, Zhou RJ, Augsburger R, See J, Le VH, Srinivasan R, Cramer SC. Connectivity measures are robust biomarkers of cortical function and plasticity after stroke. Brain. 2015 Aug;138(Pt 8):2359-69. doi: 10.1093/brain/awv156. Epub 2015 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 26070983; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4840951.

McCrimmon CM, King CE, Wang PT, Cramer SC, Nenadic Z, Do AH. Brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation therapy for gait rehabilitation after stroke: a safety study. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2015 Jul 11;12:57. doi: 10.1186/s12984-015-0050-4. PubMed PMID: 26162751; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4498504.

Liebeskind DS, Albers GW, Crawford K, Derdeyn CP, George MS, Palesch YY, Toga AW, Warach S, Zhao W, Brott TG, Sacco RL, Khatri P, Saver JL, Cramer SC, Wolf SL, Broderick JP, Wintermark M. Imaging in StrokeNet: Realizing the Potential of Big Data. Stroke. 2015 Jul;46(7):2000-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009479. Epub 2015 Jun 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 26045600; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4557967.

Barbay S, Plautz EJ, Zoubina E, Frost SB, Cramer SC, Nudo RJ. Effects of postinfarct myelin-associated glycoprotein antibody treatment on motor recovery and motor map plasticity in squirrel monkeys. Stroke. 2015 Jun;46(6):1620-5. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.008088. Epub 2015 Apr 30. PubMed PMID: 25931462.

Zondervan DK, Augsburger R, Bodenhoefer B, Friedman N, Reinkensmeyer DJ, Cramer SC. Machine-Based, Self-guided Home Therapy for Individuals With Severe Arm Impairment After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2015 Jun;29(5):395-406. doi: 10.1177/1545968314550368. Epub 2014 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 25273359; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4959835.

Riley JD, Fling BW, Cramer SC, Lin JJ. Altered organization of face-processing networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2015 May;56(5):762-71. doi: 10.1111/epi.12976. Epub 2015 Mar 30. PubMed PMID: 25823855; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4437862.

Ngo D, Sun Y, Genton MG, Wu J, Srinivasan R, Cramer SC, Ombao H. An exploratory data analysis of electroencephalograms using the functional boxplots approach. Front Neurosci. 2015 Aug 19;9:282. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00282. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26347598; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4541028.
Burke Quinlan E, Dodakian L, See J, McKenzie A, Le V, Wojnowicz M, Shahbaba B, Cramer SC. Neural function, injury, and stroke subtype predict treatment gains after stroke. Ann Neurol. 2015 Jan;77(1):132-45. doi: 10.1002/ana.24309. Epub 2014 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 25382315; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4293339.

Milot MH, Spencer SJ, Chan V, Allington JP, Klein J, Chou C, Pearson-Fuhrhop K, Bobrow JE, Reinkensmeyer DJ, Cramer SC. Corticospinal excitability as a predictor of functional gains at the affected upper limb following robotic training in chronic stroke survivors. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2014 Nov-Dec;28(9):819-27. doi: 10.1177/1545968314527351. Epub 2014 Mar 18. PubMed PMID: 24642382; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4167999.

Dodakian L, Campbell Stewart J, Cramer SC. Motor imagery during movement activates the brain more than movement alone after stroke: a pilot study. J Rehabil Med. 2014 Oct;46(9):843-8. doi: 10.2340/16501977-1844. PubMed PMID: 25182189.
Barton B, Treister A, Humphrey M, Abedi G, Cramer SC, Brewer AA. Paradoxical visuomotor adaptation to reversed visual input is predicted by BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. J Vis. 2014 Aug 7;14(9). pii: 4. doi: 10.1167/14.9.4. PubMed PMID: 25104829; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4125061.

Chollet F, Cramer SC, Stinear C, Kappelle LJ, Baron JC, Weiller C, Azouvi P, Hommel M, Sabatini U, Moulin T, Tardy J, Valenti M, Montgomery S, Adams H Jr. Pharmacological therapies in post stroke recovery: recommendations for future clinical trials. J Neurol. 2014 Aug;261(8):1461-8. doi: 10.1007/s00415-013-7172-z. Epub 2013 Nov 13. PubMed PMID: 24221642.

Burke E, Dobkin BH, Noser EA, Enney LA, Cramer SC. Predictors and biomarkers of treatment gains in a clinical stroke trial targeting the lower extremity. Stroke. 2014 Aug;45(8):2379-84. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.005436. Epub 2014 Jun 24. PubMed PMID: 25070961; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4129459.
Burke E, Dodakian L, See J, McKenzie A, Riley JD, Le V, Cramer SC. A multimodal approach to understanding motor impairment and disability after stroke. J Neurol. 2014 Jun;261(6):1178-86. doi: 10.1007/s00415-014-7341-8. Epub 2014 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 24728337.

Wu J, Srinivasan R, Kaur A, Cramer SC. Resting-state cortical connectivity predicts motor skill acquisition. Neuroimage. 2014 May 1;91:84-90. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.01.026. Epub 2014 Jan 25. PubMed PMID: 24473097; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3965590.

Vu Q, Xie K, Eckert M, Zhao W, Cramer SC. Meta-analysis of preclinical studies of mesenchymal stromal cells for ischemic stroke. Neurology. 2014 Apr 8;82(14):1277-86. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000278. Epub 2014 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 24610327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4001201.

Sharp KG, Gramer R, Butler L, Cramer SC, Hade E, Page SJ. Effect of overground training augmented by mental practice on gait velocity in chronic, incomplete spinal cord injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Apr;95(4):615-21. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2013.11.016. Epub 2013 Dec 14. PubMed PMID: 24342552; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3972328.

Cramer SC, Hill MD; REGENESIS-LED Investigators.. Human choriogonadotropin and epoetin alfa in acute ischemic stroke patients (REGENESIS-LED trial). Int J Stroke. 2014 Apr;9(3):321-7. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12260. Epub 2014 Mar 3. PubMed PMID: 24588854.

Lee JY, King C, Stradling D, Warren M, Nguyen D, Lee J, Riola MA, Montoya R, Patel D, Le VH, Welbourne SJ, Cramer SC. Influence of hematoma location on acute mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage. J Neuroimaging. 2014 Mar-Apr;24(2):131-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6569.2012.00766.x. Epub 2012 Dec 28. PubMed PMID: 23279617; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3621007.

Savitz SI, Cramer SC, Wechsler L; STEPS 3 Consortium.. Stem cells as an emerging paradigm in stroke 3: enhancing the development of clinical trials. Stroke. 2014 Feb;45(2):634-9. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003379. Epub 2013 Dec 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 24368562.

Stewart JC, Tran X, Cramer SC. Age-related variability in performance of a motor action selection task is related to differences in brain function and structure among older adults. Neuroimage. 2014 Feb 1;86:326-34. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.10.016. Epub 2013 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 24125791; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3896569.

Malcolm MP, Enney L, Cramer SC. Methods for an International Randomized Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Gsk249320 on Motor Cortex Neurophysiology using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Survivors of Stroke. J Clin Trials. 2014;4(6):1-9. PubMed PMID: 26865990; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4745095.

Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Dunn EC, Mortero S, Devan WJ, Falcone GJ, Lee P, Holmes AJ, Hollinshead MO, Roffman JL, Smoller JW, Rosand J, Cramer SC. Dopamine genetic risk score predicts depressive symptoms in healthy adults and adults with depression. PLoS One. 2014 May 16;9(5):e93772. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093772. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24834916; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4023941.

McCrimmon CM, King CE, Wang PT, Cramer SC, Nenadic Z, Do AH. Brain-controlled functional electrical stimulation for lower-limb motor recovery in stroke survivors. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:1247-50. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6943823. PubMed PMID: 25570191.

Rowe JB, Friedman N, Chan V, Cramer SC, Bachman M, Reinkensmeyer DJ. The variable relationship between arm and hand use: a rationale for using finger magnetometry to complement wrist accelerometry when measuring daily use of the upper extremity. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:4087-90. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944522. PubMed PMID: 25570890.

Milot MH, Spencer SJ, Chan V, Allington JP, Klein J, Chou C, Bobrow JE, Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. A crossover pilot study evaluating the functional outcomes of two different types of robotic movement training in chronic stroke survivors using the arm exoskeleton BONES. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2013 Dec 19;10:112. doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-10-112. PubMed PMID: 24354476; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3878268.

See J, Dodakian L, Chou C, Chan V, McKenzie A, Reinkensmeyer DJ, Cramer SC. A standardized approach to the Fugl-Meyer assessment and its implications for clinical trials. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Oct;27(8):732-41. doi: 10.1177/1545968313491000. Epub 2013 Jun 17. PubMed PMID: 23774125.

Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Cramer SC. Pharmacogenetics of neural injury recovery. Pharmacogenomics. 2013 Oct;14(13):1635-43. doi: 10.2217/pgs.13.152. PubMed PMID: 24088134.

Eckert MA, Vu Q, Xie K, Yu J, Liao W, Cramer SC, Zhao W. Evidence for high translational potential of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy to improve recovery from ischemic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2013 Sep;33(9):1322-34. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2013.91. Epub 2013 Jun 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 23756689; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3764389.

Stewart JC, Cramer SC. Response to letter regarding article, "patient-reported measures provide unique insights into motor function after stroke". Stroke. 2013 Jul;44(7):e80. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.001705. Epub 2013 Jun 4. PubMed PMID: 23735954.

Cramer SC, Abila B, Scott NE, Simeoni M, Enney LA; MAG111539 Study Investigators.. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of escalating repeat doses of GSK249320 in patients with stroke. Stroke. 2013 May;44(5):1337-42. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.674366. Epub 2013 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 23471268.

Stewart JC, Cramer SC. Patient-reported measures provide unique insights into motor function after stroke. Stroke. 2013 Apr;44(4):1111-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.674671. Epub 2013 Feb 19. PubMed PMID: 23422082; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3609884.

McHughen SA, Cramer SC. The BDNF val(66)met polymorphism is not related to motor function or short-term cortical plasticity in elderly subjects. Brain Res. 2013 Feb 7;1495:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2012.12.004. Epub 2012 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 23247064; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3552061.

Burke E, Cramer SC. Biomarkers and predictors of restorative therapy effects after stroke. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2013 Feb;13(2):329. doi: 10.1007/s11910-012-0329-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 23299824; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3580200.
Bernhardt J, Cramer SC. Giant steps for the science of stroke rehabilitation. Int J Stroke. 2013 Jan;8(1):1-2. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12028. PubMed PMID: 23280259.

Mousavi Hondori H, Khademi M, Dodakian L, Cramer SC, Lopes CV. A Spatial Augmented Reality rehab system for post-stroke hand rehabilitation. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2013;184:279-85. PubMed PMID: 23400171.
Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Minton B, Acevedo D, Shahbaba B, Cramer SC. Genetic variation in the human brain dopamine system influences motor learning and its modulation by L-Dopa. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 17;8(4):e61197. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061197. Print 2013. PubMed PMID: 23613810; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3629211.

Hagerty MR, Isaacs J, Brasington L, Shupe L, Fetz EE, Cramer SC. Case study of ecstatic meditation: fMRI and EEG evidence of self-stimulating a reward system. Neural Plast. 2013;2013:653572. doi: 10.1155/2013/653572. Epub 2013 May 2. PubMed PMID: 23738149; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3659471.

Dodakian L, Sharp KG, See J, Abidi NS, Mai K, Fling BW, Le VH, Cramer SC. Targeted engagement of a dorsal premotor circuit in the treatment of post-stroke paresis. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013;33(1):13-24. doi: 10.3233/NRE-130923. PubMed PMID: 23949026.

Chang EY, Chang EH, Cragg S, Cramer SC. Predictors of Gains During Inpatient Rehabilitation in Patients with Stroke- A Review. Crit Rev Phys Rehabil Med. 2013;25(3-4):203-221. PubMed PMID: 25541570; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4274601.

Cramer SC. Predictors of Gains During Inpatient Rehabilitation in Patients with Stroke: A Review. Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2013; 25:203-221.
Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Burke E, Cramer SC. The influence of genetic factors on brain plasticity and recovery after neural injury. Curr Opin Neurol. 2012 Dec;25(6):682-8. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e32835a360a. Review. PubMed PMID: 23044515.

Reinkensmeyer DJ, Wolbrecht ET, Chan V, Chou C, Cramer SC, Bobrow JE. Comparison of three-dimensional, assist-as-needed robotic arm/hand movement training provided with Pneu-WREX to conventional tabletop therapy after chronic stroke. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Nov;91(11 Suppl 3):S232-41. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0b013e31826bce79. PubMed PMID: 23080039; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3487467.

Cramer SC, Procaccio V; GAIN Americas.; GAIN International Study Investigators.. Correlation between genetic polymorphisms and stroke recovery: analysis of the GAIN Americas and GAIN International Studies. Eur J Neurol. 2012 May;19(5):718-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03615.x. Epub 2012 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 22221491.

Cramer SC, Stradling D, Brown DM, Carrillo-Nunez IM, Ciabarra A, Cummings M, Dauben R, Lombardi DL, Patel N, Traynor EN, Waldman S, Miller K, Stratton SJ. Organization of a United States county system for comprehensive acute stroke care. Stroke. 2012 Apr;43(4):1089-93. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.635334. Epub 2012 Jan 26. PubMed PMID: 22282882; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3314728.

Do AH, Wang PT, King CE, Schombs A, Cramer SC, Nenadic Z. Brain-computer interface controlled functional electrical stimulation device for foot drop due to stroke. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2012;2012:6414-7. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2012.6347462. PubMed PMID: 23367397.

Cramer SC. Improving outcomes after stroke by LEAPS (Locomotor Experience Applied Post-Stroke) and bounds. Stroke. 2011 Dec;42(12):3659-60. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.627992. Epub 2011 Oct 6. PubMed PMID: 21980201.

Cramer SC. An overview of therapies to promote repair of the brain after stroke. Head Neck. 2011 Oct;33 Suppl 1:S5-7. doi: 10.1002/hed.21840. Epub 2011 Sep 7. Review. PubMed PMID: 21901776.

Nouri S, Cramer SC. Anatomy and physiology predict response to motor cortex stimulation after stroke. Neurology. 2011 Sep 13;77(11):1076-83. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31822e1482. Epub 2011 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 21880996; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3265049.

Caplan LR, Arenillas J, Cramer SC, Joutel A, Lo EH, Meschia J, Savitz S, Tournier-Lasserve E. Stroke-related translational research. Arch Neurol. 2011 Sep;68(9):1110-23. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2011.99. Epub 2011 May 9. Review. PubMed PMID: 21555605; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3691989.

McHughen SA, Pearson-Fuhrhop K, Ngo VK, Cramer SC. Intense training overcomes effects of the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism on short-term plasticity. Exp Brain Res. 2011 Sep;213(4):415-22. doi: 10.1007/s00221-011-2791-z. Epub 2011 Jul 17. PubMed PMID: 21769545.
Albers GW, Goldstein LB, Hess DC, Wechsler LR, Furie KL, Gorelick PB, Hurn P, Liebeskind DS, Nogueira RG, Saver JL; STAIR VII Consortium.. Stroke Treatment Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations for maximizing the use of intravenous thrombolytics and expanding treatment options with intra-arterial and neuroprotective therapies. Stroke. 2011 Sep;42(9):2645-50. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.618850. Epub 2011 Aug 18. PubMed PMID: 21852620.

Cramer SC. Listening to fluoxetine: a hot message from the FLAME trial of poststroke motor recovery. Int J Stroke. 2011 Aug;6(4):315-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2011.00618.x. PubMed PMID: 21745341.

Cramer SC, Sur M, Dobkin BH, O'Brien C, Sanger TD, Trojanowski JQ, Rumsey JM, Hicks R, Cameron J, Chen D, Chen WG, Cohen LG, deCharms C, Duffy CJ, Eden GF, Fetz EE, Filart R, Freund M, Grant SJ, Haber S, Kalivas PW, Kolb B, Kramer AF, Lynch M, Mayberg HS, McQuillen PS, Nitkin R, Pascual-Leone A, Reuter-Lorenz P, Schiff N, Sharma A, Shekim L, Stryker M, Sullivan EV, Vinogradov S. Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications. Brain. 2011 Jun;134(Pt 6):1591-609. doi: 10.1093/brain/awr039. Epub 2011 Apr 10. PubMed PMID: 21482550; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3102236.

Riley JD, Moore S, Cramer SC, Lin JJ. Caudate atrophy and impaired frontostriatal connections are linked to executive dysfunction in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2011 May;21(1):80-7. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.03.013. Epub 2011 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 21507730; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3090499.

Cramer SC, Wu J, Hanson JA, Nouri S, Karnani D, Chuang TM, Le V. A system for addressing incidental findings in neuroimaging research. Neuroimage. 2011 Apr 1;55(3):1020-3. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.11.091. Epub 2011 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 21224007; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3057347.

Brainin M, Norrving B, Sunnerhagen KS, Goldstein LB, Cramer SC, Donnan GA, Duncan PW, Francisco G, Good D, Graham G, Kissela BM, Olver J, Ward A, Wissel J, Zorowitz R; International PSS Disability Study Group.. Poststroke chronic disease management: towards improved identification and interventions for poststroke spasticity-related complications. Int J Stroke. 2011 Feb;6(1):42-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00539.x. Review. PubMed PMID: 21205240.

Riley JD, Le V, Der-Yeghiaian L, See J, Newton JM, Ward NS, Cramer SC. Anatomy of stroke injury predicts gains from therapy. Stroke. 2011 Feb;42(2):421-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.599340. Epub 2010 Dec 16. PubMed PMID: 21164128; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3026869.

Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Cramer SC. Genetic influences on neural plasticity. PM R. 2010 Dec;2(12 Suppl 2):S227-40. doi: 10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.09.011. Review. PubMed PMID: 21172685.

Cramer SC. Stratifying patients with stroke in trials that target brain repair. Stroke. 2010 Oct;41(10 Suppl):S114-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.595165. Review. PubMed PMID: 20876483.

Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, Hacke W, Cramer SC, Kaste M, Fisher M, Brainin M, Buchan AM, Lo EH, Skolnick BE, Furie KL, Hankey GJ, Kivipelto M, Morris J, Rothwell PM, Sacco RL, Smith SC Jr, Wang Y, Bryer A, Ford GA, Iadecola C, Martins SC, Saver J, Skvortsova V, Bayley M, Bednar MM, Duncan P, Enney L, Finklestein S, Jones TA, Kalra L, Kleim J, Nitkin R, Teasell R, Weiller C, Desai B, Goldberg MP, Heiss WD, Saarelma O, Schwamm LH, Shinohara Y, Trivedi B, Wahlgren N, Wong LK, Hakim A, Norrving B, Prudhomme S, Bornstein NM, Davis SM, Goldstein LB, Leys D, Tuomilehto J. Stroke: working toward a prioritized world agenda. Int J Stroke. 2010 Aug;5(4):238-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00442.x. PubMed PMID: 20636706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3712839.

Wolk DA, Dickerson BC; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype has dissociable effects on memory and attentional-executive network function in Alzheimer's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 1;107(22):10256-61. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1001412107. Epub 2010 May 17. PubMed PMID: 20479234; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2890481.

Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, Hacke W, Cramer SC, Kaste M, Fisher M, Brainin M, Buchan AM, Lo EH, Skolnick BE, Furie KL, Hankey GJ, Kivipelto M, Morris J, Rothwell PM, Sacco RL, Smith SC Jr, Wang Y, Bryer A, Ford GA, Iadecola C, Martins SC, Saver J, Skvortsova V, Bayley M, Bednar MM, Duncan P, Enney L, Finklestein S, Jones TA, Kalra L, Kleim J, Nitkin R, Teasell R, Weiller C, Desai B, Goldberg MP, Heiss WD, Saarelma O, Schwamm LH, Shinohara Y, Trivedi B, Wahlgren N, Wong LK, Hakim A, Norrving B, Prudhomme S, Bornstein NM, Davis SM, Goldstein LB, Leys D, Tuomilehto J. Stroke: working toward a prioritized world agenda. Stroke. 2010 Jun;41(6):1084-99. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.586156. Review. PubMed PMID: 20498453; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3712843.

Cramer SC. Brain repair after stroke. N Engl J Med. 2010 May 13;362(19):1827-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe1003399. Epub 2010 Apr 16. PubMed PMID: 20400553.

Ho AJ, Stein JL, Hua X, Lee S, Hibar DP, Leow AD, Dinov ID, Toga AW, Saykin AJ, Shen L, Foroud T, Pankratz N, Huentelman MJ, Craig DW, Gerber JD, Allen AN, Corneveaux JJ, Stephan DA, DeCarli CS, DeChairo BM, Potkin SG, Jack CR Jr, Weiner MW, Raji CA, Lopez OL, Becker JT, Carmichael OT, Thompson PM; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.. A commonly carried allele of the obesity-related FTO gene is associated with reduced brain volume in the healthy elderly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 May 4;107(18):8404-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910878107. Epub 2010 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 20404173; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2889537.

McHughen SA, Rodriguez PF, Kleim JA, Kleim ED, Marchal Crespo L, Procaccio V, Cramer SC. BDNF val66met polymorphism influences motor system function in the human brain. Cereb Cortex. 2010 May;20(5):1254-62. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp189. Epub 2009 Sep 10. PubMed PMID: 19745020; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2852510.

Cramer SC, Fitzpatrick C, Warren M, Hill MD, Brown D, Whitaker L, Ryckborst KJ, Plon L. The beta-hCG+erythropoietin in acute stroke (BETAS) study: a 3-center, single-dose, open-label, noncontrolled, phase IIa safety trial. Stroke. 2010 May;41(5):927-31. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.574343. Epub 2010 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 20203320; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2869209.

Riley JD, Franklin DL, Choi V, Kim RC, Binder DK, Cramer SC, Lin JJ. Altered white matter integrity in temporal lobe epilepsy: association with cognitive and clinical profiles. Epilepsia. 2010 Apr;51(4):536-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02508.x. Epub 2010 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 20132296; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2929974.

Milot MH, Marchal-Crespo L, Green CS, Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Comparison of error-amplification and haptic-guidance training techniques for learning of a timing-based motor task by healthy individuals. Exp Brain Res. 2010 Mar;201(2):119-31. doi: 10.1007/s00221-009-2014-z. Epub 2009 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 19787345.

Marchal-Crespo L, McHughen S, Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. The effect of haptic guidance, aging, and initial skill level on motor learning of a steering task. Exp Brain Res. 2010 Mar;201(2):209-20. doi: 10.1007/s00221-009-2026-8. Epub 2009 Oct 10. PubMed PMID: 19820920; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2832903.

Underhill HR, Yuan C, Yarnykh VL, Chu B, Oikawa M, Dong L, Polissar NL, Garden GA, Cramer SC, Hatsukami TS. Predictors of surface disruption with MR imaging in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Mar;31(3):487-93. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A1842. Epub 2009 Oct 15. PubMed PMID: 19833801; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2840062.

Rimol LM, Agartz I, Djurovic S, Brown AA, Roddey JC, Kähler AK, Mattingsdal M, Athanasiu L, Joyner AH, Schork NJ, Halgren E, Sundet K, Melle I, Dale AM, Andreassen OA; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.. Sex-dependent association of common variants of microcephaly genes with brain structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jan 5;107(1):384-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0908454107. Epub 2009 Dec 22. PubMed PMID: 20080800; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2806758.

Cramer SC, Sampat A, Haske-Palomino M, Nguyen S, Procaccio V, Hermanowicz N. Increased prevalence of val(66)met BDNF genotype among subjects with cervical dystonia. Neurosci Lett. 2010 Jan 1;468(1):42-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.10.059. Epub 2009 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 19857550; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3270368.

Yozbatiran N, Harness ET, Le V, Luu D, Lopes CV, Cramer SC. A tele-assessment system for monitoring treatment effects in subjects with spinal cord injury. J Telemed Telecare. 2010;16(3):152-7. doi: 10.1258/jtt.2009.090703. PubMed PMID: 20386036.

Hachinski V, Donnan GA, Gorelick PB, Hacke W, Cramer SC, Kaste M, Fisher M, Brainin M, Buchan AM, Lo EH, Skolnick BE, Furie KL, Hankey GJ, Kivipelto M, Morris J, Rothwell PM, Sacco RL, Smith SC Jr, Wang Y, Bryer A, Ford GA, Iadecola C, Martins SC, Saver J, Skvortsova V, Bayley M, Bednar MM, Duncan P, Enney L, Finklestein S, Jones TA, Kalra L, Kleim J, Nitkin R, Teasell R, Weiller C, Desai B, Goldberg MP, Heiss WD, Saarelma O, Schwamm LH, Shinohara Y, Trivedi B, Wahlgren N, Wong LK, Hakim A, Norrving B, Prudhomme S, Bornstein NM, Davis SM, Goldstein LB, Leys D, Tuomilehto J; Stroke Synergium.. Stroke: working toward a prioritized world agenda. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2010;30(2):127-47. doi: 10.1159/000315099. Epub 2010 May 24. PubMed PMID: 20516682; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3221270.

Cramer SC, Dobkin BH, Noser EA, Rodriguez RW, Enney LA. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of ropinirole in chronic stroke. Stroke. 2009 Sep;40(9):3034-8. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.552075. Epub 2009 Jun 11. PubMed PMID: 19520987.
Davidoff AW, Hill MD, Cramer SC, Yang Y, Moore A. Open labeled, uncontrolled pharmacokinetic study of a single intramuscular hCG dose in healthy male volunteers. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Aug;47(8):516-24. PubMed PMID: 19640360.

Cramer SC. The VECTORS study: When too much of a good thing is harmful. Neurology. 2009 Jul 21;73(3):170-1. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181ae2389. Epub 2009 Jun 10. PubMed PMID: 19515995.

Belayev L, Khoutorova L, Zhao KL, Davidoff AW, Moore AF, Cramer SC. A novel neurotrophic therapeutic strategy for experimental stroke. Brain Res. 2009 Jul 14;1280:117-23. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.05.030. Epub 2009 May 20. PubMed PMID: 19463796.

Lane TA, Garls D, Mackintosh E, Kohli S, Cramer SC. Liquid storage of marrow stromal cells. Transfusion. 2009 Jul;49(7):1471-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02138.x. Epub 2009 Mar 31. PubMed PMID: 19389020.

Saver JL, Albers GW, Dunn B, Johnston KC, Fisher M; STAIR VI Consortium.. Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations for extended window acute stroke therapy trials. Stroke. 2009 Jul;40(7):2594-600. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.552554. Epub 2009 May 28. PubMed PMID: 19478212; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2761073.

Pearson-Fuhrhop KM, Kleim JA, Cramer SC. Brain plasticity and genetic factors. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2009 Jul-Aug;16(4):282-99. doi: 10.1310/tsr1604-282. Review. PubMed PMID: 19740733.

Mormino EC, Kluth JT, Madison CM, Rabinovici GD, Baker SL, Miller BL, Koeppe RA, Mathis CA, Weiner MW, Jagust WJ; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.. Episodic memory loss is related to hippocampal-mediated beta-amyloid deposition in elderly subjects. Brain. 2009 May;132(Pt 5):1310-23. doi: 10.1093/brain/awn320. Epub 2008 Nov 28. PubMed PMID: 19042931; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2677792.
Page SJ, Szaflarski JP, Eliassen JC, Pan H, Cramer SC. Cortical plasticity following motor skill learning during mental practice in stroke. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2009 May;23(4):382-8. doi: 10.1177/1545968308326427. Epub 2009 Jan 20. PubMed PMID: 19155350; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3258452.

Jack CR Jr, Lowe VJ, Weigand SD, Wiste HJ, Senjem ML, Knopman DS, Shiung MM, Gunter JL, Boeve BF, Kemp BJ, Weiner M, Petersen RC; Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.. Serial PIB and MRI in normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: implications for sequence of pathological events in Alzheimer's disease. Brain. 2009 May;132(Pt 5):1355-65. doi: 10.1093/brain/awp062. Epub 2009 Mar 31. PubMed PMID: 19339253; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2677798.

Cramer SC. Use of imaging in restorative stroke trials. Stroke. 2009 Mar;40(3 Suppl):S28-9. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.530576. Epub 2008 Dec 8. Review. PubMed PMID: 19064808.

Cramer SC, Seitz RJ. Imaging functional recovery from stroke. Handb Clin Neurol. 2009;94:1097-117. doi: 10.1016/S0072-9752(08)94054-9. PubMed PMID: 18793891.

Yozbatiran N, Alonso-Alonso M, See J, Demirtas-Tatlidede A, Luu D, Motiwala RR, Pascual-Leone A, Cramer SC. Safety and behavioral effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke. Stroke. 2009 Jan;40(1):309-12. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.522144. Epub 2008 Oct 9. PubMed PMID: 18845801; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3366156.

Reinkensmeyer DJ, Maier MA, Guigon E, Chan V, Akoner O, Wolbrecht ET, Cramer SC, Bobrow JE. Do robotic and non-robotic arm movement training drive motor recovery after stroke by a common neural mechanism? Experimental evidence and a computational model. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2009;2009:2439-41. doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2009.5335353. PubMed PMID: 19965205.

Lin JJ, Riley JD, Juranek J, Cramer SC. Vulnerability of the frontal-temporal connections in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2008 Dec;82(2-3):162-70. doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2008.07.020. Epub 2008 Oct 1. PubMed PMID: 18829258.

Cramer SC. A window into the molecular basis of human brain plasticity. J Physiol. 2008 Dec 1;586(23):5601. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.165183. PubMed PMID: 19043118; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2655405.

Milot MH, Cramer SC. Biomarkers of recovery after stroke. Curr Opin Neurol. 2008 Dec;21(6):654-9. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e3283186f96. Review. PubMed PMID: 18989108; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2882885.

Harness ET, Yozbatiran N, Cramer SC. Effects of intense exercise in chronic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2008 Nov;46(11):733-7. doi: 10.1038/sc.2008.56. Epub 2008 Jun 3. PubMed PMID: 18521094.

Huda S, Rodriguez R, Lastra L, Warren M, Lacourse MG, Cohen MJ, Cramer SC. Cortical activation during foot movements: II effect of movement rate and side. Neuroreport. 2008 Oct 29;19(16):1573-7. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e328311ca1c. PubMed PMID: 18845938.

Tafti MA, Cramer SC, Gupta R. Orthopaedic management of the upper extremity of stroke patients. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Aug;16(8):462-70. Review. PubMed PMID: 18664635.
Westhout FD, Paré LS, Delfino RJ, Cramer SC. Slope of the intracranial pressure waveform after traumatic brain injury. Surg Neurol. 2008 Jul;70(1):70-4; discussion 74. doi: 10.1016/j.surneu.2007.04.020. Epub 2008 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 18261779.

Cramer SC. Repairing the human brain after stroke. II. Restorative therapies. Ann Neurol. 2008 May;63(5):549-60. doi: 10.1002/ana.21412. Review. PubMed PMID: 18481291.

Orr EL, Lacourse MG, Cohen MJ, Cramer SC. Cortical activation during executed, imagined, and observed foot movements. Neuroreport. 2008 Apr 16;19(6):625-30. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282fbf9e0. PubMed PMID: 18382275.

Cramer SC. Repairing the human brain after stroke: I. Mechanisms of spontaneous recovery. Ann Neurol. 2008 Mar;63(3):272-87. doi: 10.1002/ana.21393. Review. PubMed PMID: 18383072.

Takahashi CD, Der-Yeghiaian L, Le V, Motiwala RR, Cramer SC. Robot-based hand motor therapy after stroke. Brain. 2008 Feb;131(Pt 2):425-37. Epub 2007 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 18156154.

Cramer SC, Riley JD. Neuroplasticity and brain repair after stroke. Curr Opin Neurol. 2008 Feb;21(1):76-82. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0b013e3282f36cb6. Review. PubMed PMID: 18180655.

Brown JA, Lutsep HL, Weinand M, Cramer SC. Motor cortex stimulation for the enhancement of recovery from stroke: a prospective, multicenter safety study. Neurosurgery. 2008 Feb;62 Suppl 2:853-62. doi: 10.1227/01.neu.0000316287.37618.78. PubMed PMID: 18596422.

Yozbatiran N, Der-Yeghiaian L, Cramer SC. A standardized approach to performing the action research arm test. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2008 Jan-Feb;22(1):78-90. Epub 2007 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 17704352.

Cramer SC. The EXCITE trial: a major step forward for restorative therapies in stroke. Stroke. 2007 Jul;38(7):2204-5. Epub 2007 May 31. PubMed PMID: 17540965.

Cramer SC, Parrish TB, Levy RM, Stebbins GT, Ruland SD, Lowry DW, Trouard TP, Squire SW, Weinand ME, Savage CR, Wilkinson SB, Juranek J, Leu SY, Himes DM. Predicting functional gains in a stroke trial. Stroke. 2007 Jul;38(7):2108-14. Epub 2007 May 31. PubMed PMID: 17540966.

Kostanian V, Cramer SC. Artery of Percheron thrombolysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 May;28(5):870-1. PubMed PMID: 17494659.

Cramer SC, Koroshetz WJ, Finklestein SP. The case for modality-specific outcome measures in clinical trials of stroke recovery-promoting agents. Stroke. 2007 Apr;38(4):1393-5. Epub 2007 Mar 1. PubMed PMID: 17332455.

Stradling D, Yu W, Langdorf ML, Tsai F, Kostanian V, Hasso AN, Welbourne SJ, Schooley Y, Fisher MJ, Cramer SC. Stroke care delivery before vs after JCAHO stroke center certification. Neurology. 2007 Feb 6;68(6):469-70. PubMed PMID: 17283326.

Cramer SC, Orr EL, Cohen MJ, Lacourse MG. Effects of motor imagery training after chronic, complete spinal cord injury. Exp Brain Res. 2007 Feb;177(2):233-42. Epub 2006 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 16944108.

Kleim JA, Kleim ED, Cramer SC. Systematic assessment of training-induced changes in corticospinal output to hand using frameless stereotaxic transcranial magnetic stimulation. Nat Protoc. 2007;2(7):1675-84. PubMed PMID: 17641632.

Hodics T, Cohen LG, Cramer SC. Functional imaging of intervention effects in stroke motor rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Dec;87(12 Suppl 2):S36-42. Review. PubMed PMID: 17140878.

Yozbatiran N, Cramer SC. Imaging motor recovery after stroke. NeuroRx. 2006 Oct;3(4):482-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 17012062; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3593410.

Sanchez RJ, Liu J, Rao S, Shah P, Smith R, Rahman T, Cramer SC, Bobrow JE, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Automating arm movement training following severe stroke: functional exercises with quantitative feedback in a gravity-reduced environment. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2006 Sep;14(3):378-89. PubMed PMID: 17009498.

Liu J, Cramer SC, Reinkensmeyer DJ. Learning to perform a new movement with robotic assistance: comparison of haptic guidance and visual demonstration. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2006 Aug 31;3:20. PubMed PMID: 16945148; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1569852.

Kleim JA, Chan S, Pringle E, Schallert K, Procaccio V, Jimenez R, Cramer SC. BDNF val66met polymorphism is associated with modified experience-dependent plasticity in human motor cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jun;9(6):735-7. Epub 2006 May 7. PubMed PMID: 16680163.

Takaya N, Yuan C, Chu B, Saam T, Underhill H, Cai J, Tran N, Polissar NL, Isaac C, Ferguson MS, Garden GA, Cramer SC, Maravilla KR, Hashimoto B, Hatsukami TS. Association between carotid plaque characteristics and subsequent ischemic cerebrovascular events: a prospective assessment with MRI--initial results. Stroke. 2006 Mar;37(3):818-23. Epub 2006 Feb 9. PubMed PMID: 16469957.

Brown JA, Lutsep HL, Weinand M, Cramer SC. Motor cortex stimulation for the enhancement of recovery from stroke: a prospective, multicenter safety study. Neurosurgery. 2006 Mar;58(3):464-73. PubMed PMID: 16528186.

Cramer SC, Crafton KR. Somatotopy and movement representation sites following cortical stroke. Exp Brain Res. 2006 Jan;168(1-2):25-32. Epub 2005 Aug 12. PubMed PMID: 16096783.

Cramer SC, Shah R, Juranek J, Crafton KR, Le V. Activity in the peri-infarct rim in relation to recovery from stroke. Stroke. 2006 Jan;37(1):111-5. Epub 2005 Nov 23. PubMed PMID: 16306462.

Cramer SC, Lastra L, Lacourse MG, Cohen MJ. Brain motor system function after chronic, complete spinal cord injury. Brain. 2005 Dec;128(Pt 12):2941-50. Epub 2005 Oct 24. PubMed PMID: 16246866.

Cramer SC. Patent foramen ovale and stroke: prognosis and treatment in young adults. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2005 Oct;20(2):85-91. PubMed PMID: 16205857.

Lacourse MG, Orr EL, Cramer SC, Cohen MJ. Brain activation during execution and motor imagery of novel and skilled sequential hand movements. Neuroimage. 2005 Sep;27(3):505-19. PubMed PMID: 16046149.

Takahashi CD, Der Yeghiaian L, Cramer SC. Stroke recovery and its imaging. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2005 Aug;15(3):681-95, xii. Review. PubMed PMID: 16360597.

Cramer SC, Benson RR, Himes DM, Burra VC, Janowsky JS, Weinand ME, Brown JA, Lutsep HL. Use of functional MRI to guide decisions in a clinical stroke trial. Stroke. 2005 May;36(5):e50-2. Epub 2005 Apr 14. PubMed PMID: 15831835.

Cramer SC. Patent foramen ovale and its relationship to stroke. Cardiol Clin. 2005 Feb;23(1):7-11. Review. PubMed PMID: 15676264.

Aylward EH, Park JE, Field KM, Parsons AC, Richards TL, Cramer SC, Meltzoff AN. Brain activation during face perception: evidence of a developmental change. J Cogn Neurosci. 2005 Feb;17(2):308-19. PubMed PMID: 15811242.

Cramer SC. Functional imaging in stroke recovery. Stroke. 2004 Nov;35(11 Suppl 1):2695-8. Epub 2004 Sep 23. PubMed PMID: 15388899.

Cavendish JJ, Cramer SC, Graham GD. Role of antiplatelet therapy in cardiovascular disease II: Ischemic stroke. Curr Med Res Opin. 2004 Nov;20(11):1845-9. PubMed PMID: 15537485.

Nhan H, Barquist K, Bell K, Esselman P, Odderson IR, Cramer SC. Brain function early after stroke in relation to subsequent recovery. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004 Jul;24(7):756-63. PubMed PMID: 15241183.

Parisi MA, Pinter JD, Glass IA, Field K, Maria BL, Chance PF, Mahurin RK, Cramer SC. Cerebral and cerebellar motor activation abnormalities in a subject with Joubert syndrome: functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. J Child Neurol. 2004 Mar;19(3):214-8. PubMed PMID: 15119482.

Atri A, Sherman S, Norman KA, Kirchhoff BA, Nicolas MM, Greicius MD, Cramer SC, Breiter HC, Hasselmo ME, Stern CE. Blockade of central cholinergic receptors impairs new learning and increases proactive interference in a word paired-associate memory task. Behav Neurosci. 2004 Feb;118(1):223-36. PubMed PMID: 14979800.

Cramer SC, Rordorf G, Maki JH, Kramer LA, Grotta JC, Burgin WS, Hinchey JA, Benesch C, Furie KL, Lutsep HL, Kelly E, Longstreth WT Jr. Increased pelvic vein thrombi in cryptogenic stroke: results of the Paradoxical Emboli from Large Veins in Ischemic Stroke (PELVIS) study. Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):46-50. Epub 2003 Dec 4. PubMed PMID: 14657451.

Cramer SC. Editorial comment--spasticity after stroke: what's the catch? Stroke. 2004 Jan;35(1):139-40. Epub 2003 Dec 18. PubMed PMID: 14684784.

Reinkensmeyer DJ, Emken JL, Cramer SC. Robotics, motor learning, and neurologic recovery. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2004;6:497-525. Review. PubMed PMID: 15255778.

Baron JC, Cohen LG, Cramer SC, Dobkin BH, Johansen-Berg H, Loubinoux I, Marshall RS, Ward NS; First International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke Recovery.. Neuroimaging in stroke recovery: a position paper from the First International Workshop on Neuroimaging and Stroke Recovery. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2004;18(3):260-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 15484327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3718532.
Cramer SC. Changes in motor system function and recovery after stroke. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2004;22(3-5):231-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 15502267.

Cramer SC, Benson RR, Burra VC, Himes D, Crafton KR, Janowsky JS, Brown JA, Lutsep HL. Mapping individual brains to guide restorative therapy after stroke: rationale and pilot studies. Neurol Res. 2003 Dec;25(8):811-4. PubMed PMID: 14669523.

Brown JA, Lutsep H, Cramer SC, Weinand M. Motor cortex stimulation for enhancement of recovery after stroke: case report. Neurol Res. 2003 Dec;25(8):815-8. PubMed PMID: 14669524.

Bodwell JA, Mahurin RK, Waddle S, Price R, Cramer SC. Age and features of movement influence motor overflow. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003 Dec;51(12):1735-9. PubMed PMID: 14687351.

Morrison SJ, Demorest SM, Aylward EH, Cramer SC, Maravilla KR. FMRI investigation of cross-cultural music comprehension. Neuroimage. 2003 Sep;20(1):378-84. PubMed PMID: 14527597.

Aylward EH, Richards TL, Berninger VW, Nagy WE, Field KM, Grimme AC, Richards AL, Thomson JB, Cramer SC. Instructional treatment associated with changes in brain activation in children with dyslexia. Neurology. 2003 Jul 22;61(2):212-9. PubMed PMID: 12874401.

Crafton KR, Mark AN, Cramer SC. Improved understanding of cortical injury by incorporating measures of functional anatomy. Brain. 2003 Jul;126(Pt 7):1650-9. Epub 2003 May 21. PubMed PMID: 12805118.

Cramer SC. Editorial comment--Implementing results of stroke recovery research into clinical practice. Stroke. 2003 Jul;34(7):1752-3. Epub 2003 Jun 19. PubMed PMID: 12817097.

Cramer SC, Maki JH, Waitches GM, D'Souza N, Grotta JC, Burgin WS, Kramer LA. Paradoxical emboli from calf and pelvic veins in cryptogenic stroke. J Neuroimaging. 2003 Jul;13(3):218-23. PubMed PMID: 12889167.

Zemke AC, Heagerty PJ, Lee C, Cramer SC. Motor cortex organization after stroke is related to side of stroke and level of recovery. Stroke. 2003 May;34(5):e23-8. Epub 2003 Apr 3. PubMed PMID: 12677024.
Cramer SC. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in stroke recovery. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2003 Feb;14(1 Suppl):S47-55. Review. PubMed PMID: 12625637.

Cramer SC. Clinical issues in animal models of stroke and rehabilitation. ILAR J. 2003;44(2):83-4. Review. PubMed PMID: 12652002.

Schaechter JD, Kraft E, Hilliard TS, Dijkhuizen RM, Benner T, Finklestein SP, Rosen BR, Cramer SC. Motor recovery and cortical reorganization after constraint-induced movement therapy in stroke patients: a preliminary study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2002 Dec;16(4):326-38. PubMed PMID: 12462764.

Cramer SC, Mark A, Barquist K, Nhan H, Stegbauer KC, Price R, Bell K, Odderson IR, Esselman P, Maravilla KR. Motor cortex activation is preserved in patients with chronic hemiplegic stroke. Ann Neurol. 2002 Nov;52(5):607-16. PubMed PMID: 12402258.

Cramer SC, Weisskoff RM, Schaechter JD, Nelles G, Foley M, Finklestein SP, Rosen BR. Motor cortex activation is related to force of squeezing. Hum Brain Mapp. 2002 Aug;16(4):197-205. PubMed PMID: 12112762.

Doherty MJ, Watson NF, Uchino K, Hallam DK, Cramer SC. Diffusion abnormalities in patients with Wernicke encephalopathy. Neurology. 2002 Feb 26;58(4):655-7. PubMed PMID: 11865152.

Cramer SC, Fray E, Tievsky A, Parker RA, Riskind PN, Stein MC, Wedeen V, Rosen BR. Changes in motor cortex activation after recovery from spinal cord inflammation. Mult Scler. 2001 Dec;7(6):364-70. PubMed PMID: 11795457.

Cramer SC, Stegbauer KC, Schneider A, Mukai J, Maravilla KR. Decreased diffusion in central pontine myelinolysis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001 Sep;22(8):1476-9. PubMed PMID: 11559493.

Reed SD, Cramer SC, Blough DK, Meyer K, Jarvik JG. Treatment with tissue plasminogen activator and inpatient mortality rates for patients with ischemic stroke treated in community hospitals. Stroke. 2001 Aug;32(8):1832-40. PubMed PMID: 11486113.

Uchino K, Billheimer D, Cramer SC. Entry criteria and baseline characteristics predict outcome in acute stroke trials. Stroke. 2001 Apr;32(4):909-16. Review. PubMed PMID: 11283391.

Cramer SC, Nelles G, Schaechter JD, Kaplan JD, Finklestein SP, Rosen BR. A functional MRI study of three motor tasks in the evaluation of stroke recovery. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2001;15(1):1-8. PubMed PMID: 11527274.

Cramer SC. Stroke recovery: how the computer reprograms itself. Neuronal plasticity: the key to stroke recovery. Kananskis, Alberta, Canada, 19-22 March 2000. Mol Med Today. 2000 Aug;6(8):301-3. PubMed PMID: 11041652.

Cramer SC, Chopp M. Recovery recapitulates ontogeny. Trends Neurosci. 2000 Jun;23(6):265-71. Review. PubMed PMID: 10838596.

Rordorf G, Koroshetz W, Efird JT, Cramer SC. Predictors of mortality in stroke patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Crit Care Med. 2000 May;28(5):1301-5. PubMed PMID: 10834669.

Cramer SC, Bastings EP. Mapping clinically relevant plasticity after stroke. Neuropharmacology. 2000 Mar 3;39(5):842-51. Review. PubMed PMID: 10699449.

Cramer SC, Moore CI, Finklestein SP, Rosen BR. A pilot study of somatotopic mapping after cortical infarct. Stroke. 2000 Mar;31(3):668-71. PubMed PMID: 10700502.

Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR).. Recommendations for standards regarding preclinical neuroprotective and restorative drug development. Stroke. 1999 Dec;30(12):2752-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 10583007.

Cramer SC. Stroke recovery. Lessons from functional MR imaging and other methods of human brain mapping. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 1999 Nov;10(4):875-86, ix. Review. PubMed PMID: 10573713.

Cramer SC, Finklestein SP, Schaechter JD, Bush G, Rosen BR. Activation of distinct motor cortex regions during ipsilateral and contralateral finger movements. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Jan;81(1):383-7. PubMed PMID: 9914297.

Cramer SC, Rordorf G, Kaufman JA, Buonanno F, Koroshetz WJ, Schwamm L. Clinically occult pelvic-vein thrombosis in cryptogenic stroke. Lancet. 1998 Jun 27;351(9120):1927-8. PubMed PMID: 9654263.

Nelles G, Cramer SC, Schaechter JD, Kaplan JD, Finklestein SP. Quantitative assessment of mirror movements after stroke. Stroke. 1998 Jun;29(6):1182-7. PubMed PMID: 9626292.

Rordorf G, Koroshetz WJ, Copen WA, Cramer SC, Schaefer PW, Budzik RF Jr, Schwamm LH, Buonanno F, Sorensen AG, Gonzalez G. Regional ischemia and ischemic injury in patients with acute middle cerebral artery stroke as defined by early diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted MRI. Stroke. 1998 May;29(5):939-43. PubMed PMID: 9596239.

Cramer SC, Nelles G, Benson RR, Kaplan JD, Parker RA, Kwong KK, Kennedy DN, Finklestein SP, Rosen BR. A functional MRI study of subjects recovered from hemiparetic stroke. Stroke. 1997 Dec;28(12):2518-27. PubMed PMID: 9412643.

Rordorf G, Cramer SC, Efird JT, Schwamm LH, Buonanno F, Koroshetz WJ. Pharmacological elevation of blood pressure in acute stroke. Clinical effects and safety. Stroke. 1997 Nov;28(11):2133-8. PubMed PMID: 9368553.

Cramer SC, Nelles G, Schaechter JD, Kaplan JD, Finklestein SP. Computerized measurement of motor performance after stroke. Stroke. 1997 Nov;28(11):2162-8. PubMed PMID: 9368558.

Cramer SC, Robertson RL, Dooling EC, Scott RM. Moyamoya and Down syndrome. Clinical and radiological features. Stroke. 1996 Nov;27(11):2131-5. PubMed PMID: 8898827.

Cramer SC, Schaefer PW, Krishnamoorthy KS. Microgyria in the distribution of the middle cerebral artery in a patient with DiGeorge syndrome. J Child Neurol. 1996 Nov;11(6):494-7. Review. PubMed PMID: 9120232.

Cramer SC, Glaspy JA, Efird JT, Louis DN. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and the central nervous system: a clinical and pathological study. Neurology. 1996 Jan;46(1):19-25. Review. PubMed PMID: 8559372.

Cramer SC, Pardridge WM, Hirayama BA, Wright EM. Colocalization of GLUT2 glucose transporter, sodium/glucose cotransporter, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in rat kidney with double-peroxidase immunocytochemistry. Diabetes. 1992 Jun;41(6):766-70. PubMed PMID: 1350259.

Cramer SC, Rhodes RH, Acton EM, Tökés ZA. Neurotoxicity and dermatotoxicity of cyanomorpholinyl adriamycin. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1989;23(2):71-5. PubMed PMID: 2910514.
Graduate Programs Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program

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Last updated 06/22/2017