Ellen R.M. Druffel

Fred Kavli Professor, Earth System Science
School of Physical Sciences

Adjunct Professor - Research Associate, IOD, Scripps, UCSD

Co-Director, Keck Carbon Cycle AMS

Adjunct Professor, Urban Water Research Center

Ph.D., U.C. San Diego, Chemistry

B.S., Loyola Marymount University, Chemistry

Phone: (949) 824-2116
Fax: (949) 824-3874
Email: edruffel@uci.edu

University of California, Irvine
Croul Hall 3222
Mail Code: 3100
Irvine, CA 92697

picture of Ellen R.M. Druffel

Changes in past ocean circulation and ventilation; sources and cycling of marine dissolved and particulate carbon using AMS
URL Druffel Lab website
American Institute of Chemists Award, 1975
Macelwane Medal, AGU, 1990
Fellow of AGU, AAAS and The Oceanography Society
Hall of Fame, Loyola Marymount Univ. 2001
Ruth Patrick Award, American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, 2004
UCI NSF Advance Chair, 2003-2008
Fred Kavli Chair of Earth System Science 2013 - present
The goals of my research group are twofold. First, we aspire to understand why the 14C age of marine dissolved organic carbon is thousands of years old, despite the fact that most of it is produced recently in the surface ocean during photosynthesis. Second, how has circulation changed in the tropical Pacific during the past millennium? We use accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) to measure radiocarbon in samples as small as 2µg C to date the time since C was last in contact with the atmosphere. We study coral from the Pacific and Atlantic to reconstruct seasonal-to-annual records of isotopes that lend themselves well to reconstruction of past temperature, salinity and upwelling strength in surface waters.

Recent doctoral students in our group include Steve Beaupré (2007, moving to SUNY Stony Brook as Professor) and Lori Ziolkowski (2009, Professor at University of South Carolina).
Publications Martin, E.E., A. E. Ingalls, J.E. Richey, R.G. Keil, L.T. Truxal, G.M. Santos, S. R. Alin, and E.R.M. Druffel (2013). Radiocarbon age of lignin in a tropical river unravels the terrestrial carbon cycle. Geophysical Research Letters 40, 1–5, doi:10.1002/2013GL057450.
  Osborne, M., R.B. Dunbar, D. Muccairone J.-A. Sanchez, E.R.M. Druffel (2013). Regionally consistent calibrations of coral proxy records from Palau, West Pacific Warm Pool, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 386, 308-320.
  Bertrand, C., * B.D. Walker, S. Griffin, E.R.M. Druffel (2013). Comparison of particulate organic and dissolved inorganic radiocarbon signatures in the surface northeast Pacific Ocean, Radiocarbon 55 (2-3), 1651-1658.
  * Coppola, A.I., * L.A. Ziolkowski, Druffel, E.R.M. (2013). Extraneous Carbon Assessments in Radiocarbon Measurements of Black Carbon in Environmental Matrices, Radiocarbon, 55 (2-3) 1631-1640.
  Druffel, E.R.M., S. Griffin, * B.D. Walker, * A.I. Coppola, * D.S. Glynn (2013), Total uncertainty of radiocarbon measurements of marine dissolved organic carbon and methodological recommendations, Radiocarbon, 55 (2-3) 1135-1141.
  * Glynn, D.S., E.R.M. Druffel, S. Griffin, R.B. Dunbar, * M. Osborne, J.-A. Sanchez-Cabeza (2013). Early bomb radiocarbon detected in Palau Archipelago corals, Radiocarbon 55 (2-3) 1659-1664.
  Komada, T., D. J. Burdige, S. M. Crispo, E. R. M. Druffel, S. Griffin, L. Johnson, (2013). Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in anaerobic sediments of the Santa Monica Basin, Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 110, 253-273.
  * Beaupré, S.R. and E. R. M. Druffel (2012). Photochemical reactivity of ancient marine dissolved organic carbon. Geophysical Research Letters, 39, L18602, doi:10.1029/2012GL052974
  Goodkin, N.F., E.R.M. Druffel, K.A. Hughen and S.C. Doney (2012). Two centuries of limited variability in subtropical North Atlantic thermocline ventilation, Nature Communications, 3:803?doi: 10.1038/ncomms1811.
  * Druffel-Rodriguez, K.C. *D. Vetter, S Griffin, E.R.M. Druffel, R.B. Dunbar, D.A. Mucciarone, *L.A. Ziolkowski and J.-A. Sanchez-Cabeza, (2012). Radiocarbon and stable isotopes in Palmyra corals during the past century, Geochemica et Cosmochimica Acta 82, 154-163.
  * Pack, M.A., M.B. Heintz, W.S. Reeburgh, S.E. Trumbore, D.L. Valentine, X. Xu, and E.R.M. Druffel (2011). A method for measuring methane oxidation rates using low-levels of 14C-labeled methane and accelerator mass spectrometry. Limnology and Oceanography Methods 9, 245–260.
  * Walker, B.D., * S.R. Beaupré, T.P. Guilderson, E.R.M. Druffel, and M.D. McCarthy, (2011). Evaluation of large-volume ultrafiltration for the study of marine dissolved organic matter radiocarbon signatures. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 75, 5187-5202.
  * Ziolkowski, L.A., A.R. Chamberlin, J. Greaves and E.R.M. Druffel (2011). Quantification of black carbon in marine systems using the benzene polycarboxylic acid method: a mechanistic and yield study. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 9, 140–149.
  McCarthy, M. * S.R. Beaupré, B.D. * Walker, I. Voparil, T.P. Guilderson and E.R.M. Druffel (2011). Oceanic ridge flanks a source for 14C-depleted chemosynthetic dissolved organic carbon to the deep ocean, Nature Geoscience 4, 32–36.
  Santos, G.M., J. Ferguson, * K. Acaylar, K.R. Johnson, S. Griffin and E.R.M. Druffel (2011). ?14C and d13C of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon as tracers of coastal upwelling: A 5-year time-series from Southern California. Radiocarbon 53 (4), 669-677.
  Ingalls, A., Ellis, E., G. Santos, * K. McDuffee, L. Truxal, R. Keil, E.R.M. Druffel (2010). HPLC purification of higher plant-derived lignin phenols for compound specific radiocarbon analysis. Analytical Chemistry, 82(21), 8931–8938 doi: 10.1021/ac1016584.
  * Zaunbrecher, L., K.M. Cobb, J.W. Beck, C.D. Charles, E.R.M.Druffel, R.G. Fairbanks, S. Griffin, and H. Sayani (2010). Coral Records of Central Tropical Pacific Radiocarbon Variability during the Last Millennium, Paleoceanography, 25, PA4212, doi:10.1029/2009PA001788.
  * Hwang, J. E.R.M. Druffel, T.I. Eglinton (2010). Widespread influence of resuspended sediments on oceanic particulate organic carbon: Insights from radiocarbon and aluminum contents in sinking particles, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24, GB4016, doi:10.1029/2010GB003802.
  * Ziolkowski, L. A., and E. R. M. Druffel (2010). Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L16601, doi:10.1029/2010GL043963.
  Druffel, E.R.M., * S.R. Beaupré, S. Griffin, and * J. Hwang (2010). Variability of dissolved inorganic radiocarbon at a surface site in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Radiocarbon 52(3), 1150-1165.
  Druffel, E.R.M., D. Zhang, X. Xu, * L.A. Ziolkowski, J.R. Southon, G.M. Santos and S.E. Trumbore (2010). Compound specific radiocarbon analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and alkanes in ocean sediments. Radiocarbon 52(3), 1215-1223.
  Griffin, S, * S.R. Beaupré and E.R.M. Druffel (2010). An alternate method of diluting dissolved organic carbon seawater samples for 14C analysis. Radiocarbon 52(3), 1224-1229.
  Santos, G.. J.R. Southon, * N.J. Drenzek, , * L. Ziolkowski, E.R.M. Druffel, X. Xu, D. Zhang and S.E. Trumbore T.I. Eglinton, K.A. Hughen (2010). Blank assessment for ultra-small radiocarbon samples: chemical extraction and separation vs. AMS. Radiocarbon 52(3), 1322-1335.
  * Hinger, Elise N., G.M. Santos, S. Griffin and E.R.M. Druffel, (2010). Carbon Isotope Measurements of Surface Seawater from a Time-Series Site off Southern California, Radiocarbon 52 (1), 69-89.
  Beaupré, S.R. and E.R.M. Druffel, (2009). Time series of marine dissolved organic carbon in the northeast Pacific Ocean, Deep-Sea Research, 56(10), 1717-1726.
  * Coppola, A.I., L.A. Ziolkowski, C.A. Masiello, E.R.M. Druffel (2014). Aged Black Carbon in Marine Sediments and Sinking Particles. Geophysical Research Letters, in press.
  Ziolkowski, L. and E.R.M. Druffel, (2009). Detection of carbon nanotubes using the benzene polycarboxylic acid method, Marine Pollution Bulletin (in press) doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.04.018.
  Hansman, R. S. Griffin, J. Watson, E. Druffel, A. Ingalls, A. Pearson, and A. Aluwihare, (2009). The radiocarbon signature of microorganisms in the mesopelagic ocean, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 106, 6513–6518.
  Drenzek, Nicholas J., Konrad A. Hughen, Daniel B. Montluçon, John R. Southon, Guaciara M. dos Santos, Ellen R. M. Druffel, Liviu Giosan, and Timothy I. Eglinton (2009), A new look at old carbon in active margin sediments, Geology, 37, 239-242; doi 10.1130/G25351A.1. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/09%20Drenzek%20etal%20Geology.pdf
  Druffel, E.R.M. and S. Griffin (2008). Daily variability of dissolved inorganic radiocarbon at three sites in the surface ocean, Marine Chemistry, 110, 185-189. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/08Druffel%20MC.pdf
  Druffel, E.R.M., LF. Robinson, S. Griffin, R. Halley, J. Southon and J.F. Adkins (2008). Low reservoir ages for the surface ocean from mid-Holocene Florida corals, Paleoceanography, doi:10.1029/2007PA001527. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/07Druffel%20Paleoceanography.pdf
  Druffel, E.R.M., J.E. Bauer, S. Griffin, * S.R. Beaupré, * J. Hwang (2008). Dissolved inorganic radiocarbon in the North Pacific Ocean and Sargasso Sea, Deep-Sea Research I, 55 (4), 451-459. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2007.12.007 https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/08Druffel%20DSR.pdf
  Beaupre, S.R., E.R.M. Druffel and S. Griffin (2007). A low-blank photochemical extraction system for concentration and isotopic analyses of marine dissolved organic carbon, Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 5, 174-184. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/07Beaupre%20LO_Methods.pdf
  K. McDuffee and E.R.M. Druffel, (2007). Daily variability of dissolved inorganic radiocarbon in Sargasso Sea surface water, Marine Chemistry, 106, 513-518. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/07McDuffeeMC.pdf
  Druffel, E.R.M., S. Griffin, S. R. Beaupré and R. B. Dunbar (2007) Oceanic climate and circulation changes during the past four centuries from radiocarbon in corals, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, doi:10.1029/2006GL028681. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/07Druffel%20GRL.pdf
  Santos, G.M., J.R. Southon, S. Griffin, * S.R. Beaupré and E.R.M. Druffel (2007). Ultra small-mass 14C-AMS sample preparation and analyses at KCCAMS Facility, Nuclear Instrumentation and Methods in Physics Research B, 259, 293-302. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/07Santos%20NIMB.pdf
  Hwang, J. and E.R.M. Druffel, (2006) Carbon isotope ratios of organic compound fractions in oceanic suspended particles, Geophysical Research Letters, 33, L23610, doi:10.1029/2006GL027928. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/06Hwang%20GRL.pdf
  Hwang, J. and E. R. M. Druffel, Timothy I. Eglinton, and Daniel J. Repeta (2006), Source(s) and cycling of the nonhydrolyzable organic fraction of oceanic particles, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 2006, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2006.07.020. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/06Hwang%20GCA.pdf
  Ingalls, Anitra E., Sunita R. Shah, Roberta L. Hansman, Lihini I. Aluwihare, Guaciara M. Santos, Ellen R. M. Druffel, Ann Pearson (2006) Quantifying archaeal community autotrophy in the mesopelagic ocean using natural radiocarbon, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103 (17), 6442-6447. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/06Ingalls%20PNAS.pdf
  Hwang, J., E.R.M. Druffel, and J.E. Bauer (2006), Incorporation of aged dissolved organic carbon (DOC) onto oceanic particulate organic carbon (POC): an experimental approach using carbon isotopes, Marine Chemistry, 98, 315-322. https://webfiles.uci.edu/edruffel/DruffelPubs/06Hwang%20MarChem.pdf
  Surface Temperature Reconstruction for the Last 2,000 Years (2006), National Research Council, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Division on Earth and Life Studies, fermat.nap.edu/catalog/11676.html.
Grants NSF Chemical Oceanography and Office of Polar Programs
Jenkins Foundation
The Kavli Foundation
Other Experience Scientist
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1981—1993

Visiting Scholar
University of California, Santa Cruz 1987—1988

Research Centers W. M. Keck Carbon Cycle Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory
UCI Urban Water Research Center
Link to this profile http://www.faculty.uci.edu/profile.cfm?faculty_id=2027
Last updated 02/08/2014